Loading…

Sign up or log in to bookmark your favorites and sync them to your phone or calendar.

Session 6D [clear filter]
Wednesday, July 13
 

15:30

Session 6D: Organizations & Workplaces
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
avatar for Esther Brainin

Esther Brainin

Senior Lecturer, Ruppn Academic Center ISRAEL

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:30 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

A review of research on social media use in organizations
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Halvdan Haugsbakken, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway

Background: 

Media scholars have systematically examined the implications of social media on society. The ways the same technology adopt into organizations is a more uncertain area of knowledge in organization studies. This aspect relates to that organization theorists prefer to engage into theorizing, than putting focus on how social media is actually used among people in organizational life. This leads to an emphasis on explaining what social media “is”, than painting a larger picture on how receptive organizations are to adopt the forces of digitalization.

Objective: 

Hence, the paper provides a research review of a large sample of empirical studies, which have examined how members in organizations use three social media services – blog, Social Network Sites and wikis. Based on an open coding strategy, the research review tries to establish common user patterns for use of social media in organizational life.

Methods: 

To complete the research review, an open-ended literature research search was performed in bibliographic databases by use of search strings. The search and data analysis period lasted from January to May 2015 and yielded a final data sample of 105 research articles, covering scientific journals and conference papers evaluated to answer the paper’s problem complex.

Results: 

The research review finds some overall user patterns for use of social media in organizations. Social media services are foremost used as a connecting site and knowledge repository. Here, wikis suggest to work as a successful knowledge repository. Employees use social media services to search and retrieve resources and communicate with people across internal organizational boundaries. For example, blogs and SNSs can enhance internal communication in organizations. But many studies also show barriers to adoption; blog and SNSs are often sustained by a core group and sharing is seen as challenging to perform in practice. SNSs are however seen as a platform that can cultivate social capital across organizational levels. To communicate externally, SNSs are typically used as a bulletin board, while employees are conscious on how they bond with peers internally in organizations. Wikis are often used as a collaborative tool and can be a suitable platform to support work processes, meaning that users are aware on their role performance.

In sum, the research review suggests that organizations attempt to ascertain basic knowledge on initial user patterns. Few studies report changes in organizational structures. Thus, social media has challenges in becoming sustainable. Rather, adopting social media in organizational life is an “uphill struggle” for those seeing it as beneficial. For many employees, social media represents another ICT that has to be learned. Therefore, one finds the common user pattern that a core group of users adopt the technology and maintain network activities, while a larger user group remain and use “older” ICTs. They remain in the email sphere and passively monitor the online content the core group shares.

Future Work: 

The research review will give suggestions for areas of future research and how practitioners and managers can use social media as part of their work practices. 


Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Crowdsourcing in Practice: the users view of micro tasking
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Anita Greenhill, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
  • Jamie Woodcock, Cass Business School, United Kingdom
  • Kate Holmes, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
  • Chris Lintott, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Brooke Simmons, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Gary Graham, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
  • Karen Masters, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom
  • Joe Cox, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom
  • Eun Young Oh, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Background:

This paper explores the relationship between paid labour and users within the Zooniverse, a crowdsourced citizen science platform. The infrastructure that allows very large numbers of users to participate simultaneously in the Zooniverse is run on Amazon Web Services cloud servers. This connection between Amazon and the Zooniverse can be explored to illustrate a number of important features in this form of crowdsourcing. For example, Amazon Mechanical Turk is run on this service. This involves splitting larger tasks into small fragments and then outsourcing them to a pool of digital workers. The way in which the labour input becomes hidden on these kinds of platforms has been described by Trebor Scholz (2015) as ‘digital black box labor.’ It obfuscates a number of issues: how is the labour process organised and who is doing it? How is it managed and controlled? What is it being used for? And, particularly important for this paper, what tensions are present both inside and beyond the platform? 

Objective:

To gain deeper insight into the user activities involved in the collective categorisation of large datasets, mainly relating to images that cannot currently be analysed algorithmically. However, unlike in other examples of micro-tasking, in this case there is also the possibility for individual users to make serendipitous discoveries. Furthermore, this work aims to explore the contradictions that emerge in practice between the two, especially considering the tensions between paid and unpaid labour. 

Methods:

The paper draws on empirical data from an ongoing research project that has access to both users and paid professionals on the platform. This combination of ethnography, in-depth interviews, and quantitative data combines to provide new insights into the organisation and processes of this large citizen science platform. The Zooniverse case study provides an important starting point for understanding the dynamics of paid and unpaid work in the context of crowdsourcing and peer production. 

Results:

There is the potential through growing peer-to-peer capacity that the boundaries between professional and citizen scientists can become significantly blurred. Crowdsourcing can allow the complex tasks involved in data analysis to be collectively achieved, yet there remain limits to the contribution that individuals in the crowd can make. The findings of the paper therefore address important questions about the production of value, ownerships, and the politics of open source acts. These are considered specifically from the viewpoint of the users and therefore form a new contribution to the theoretical understanding of crowdsourcing in practice. 

Future Work:

To continue exploration on the motivation of users on crowdsourcing platforms to disentangle the key motivations such as in this case: a combination of scientific engagement and hedonistic enjoyment. We understand that while the motivation of users does not change the basic interaction on the platform (whatever the reason for participating the data is still being categorised), the former raises a number of important questions about the nature of citizen science. 

References:

Scholz, T. (2015, April 5) Think Outside the Boss. Public Seminar. Retrieved from http://www.publicseminar.org/2015/04/think-outside-the-boss 

 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Healthcare Workers Sharing Knowledge Online: Motivations and Consequences of Participating in a Virtual Community of Practice
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Anika Batenburg, Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands

Background:

Within organizations, a recent trend is to use social media platforms for internal communication. These online platforms to share information, so called Virtual Communities of Practice (VCoP’s), enable an open communication climate (Behrend & Erwee, 2009), and therefore are assumed to be more effective as an organizational form to create knowledge and innovation than the traditional hierarchal ways of structuring interactions (Von Wartburg, Rost, & Teichert, 2006). Perhaps because viability and the value of a VCoP depend on member-generated content, previous studies are mostly focused on factors that motivate online knowledge sharing behaviour (e.g., Chiu, Hsu, & Wang, 2006; Chen & Hung, 2010; Cheung, Lee & Lee, 2013). However, it is unknown what participation does to its’ members. 

Objective:

Based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985), we aim to get more insight into intrinsic motivations and potential work-related consequences of knowledge sharing behaviour within a VCoP among employees of a healthcare organization. According SDT, individuals are eager to fulfil three psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness), and when satisfied individuals experience psychological growth, integrity, and wellbeing. The first aim was to test if employees who experience competence, relatedness, and autonomy within the VCoP, are more motivated to share their knowledge within the community. The second goal, as potential consequences of participation, was to test if online knowledge sharing behaviour is related to feelings of competence, autonomy, and relatedness at work, and if this relates to work satisfaction. 

Methods:

A group of 260 employees with access to a VCoP within a Dutch healthcare organization filled-out a questionnaire. First, we measured employees’ online knowledge sharing behaviour (KSB; Yoon & Rolland, 2012), feelings of autonomy, relatedness and competence within the community itself (as motivations for KSB; Yoon & Rolland, 2012), and as consequences, feelings of autonomy, relatedness and competence in performing their job (Deci & Ryan, 2001), and work satisfaction (Curry, Wakefield, Price, & Mueller, 1986). All indices appeared internally consistent (Cronbach’s α >.76) and factor analyses showed that the indices explained between 58.97% and 86.89% of the variance. 

Results:

Regarding motivations, feelings of competence within the community were positively related to online KSB (β =.61, p<.001). Feelings of autonomy and relatedness within the online community were not related to online KSB. With respect to consequences of participation, online KSB was positively related to feelings of autonomy (β =.34, p<.001), relatedness (β =.31, p<.001), and competence at work (β =.38, p<.001). Furthermore, feelings of competence at work was positively related to work satisfaction (β =.29, p=.018). The relationship between online KSB and work satisfaction was partially mediated by feelings of competence at work. 

Future Work:

To our knowledge this is the first study showing that SDT has the potential to explain both motivations and consequences of being part of a VCoP within an organization. A limitation is the cross-sectional design. Future research is needed to establish causal relationships. To reveal if results hold among different communities, we will be present results of two other studies (in progress) as well. 

References: 

Behrend, F. D., & Erwee, R. (2009). Mapping knowledge flows in virtual teams with SNA. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13, 99-114. 
Chen, C.J., & Hung, S.W. (2010). To give or to receive? Factors influencing members’ knowledge sharing and community promotion in professional virtual communities. Information & Management, 47(4), 226–236. 
Cheung, C. M. K., Lee, M. K. O., & Lee, Z. W. Y. (2013). Understanding the continuance intention of knowledge sharing in online communities of practice through the post-knowledge-sharing evaluation processes, 64(7), 1357–1374. 
Chiu, C., Hsu, M., & Wang, E., 2006. Understanding knowledge sharing in virtual communities: an integration of social capital and social cognitive theories. Decision Support Systems, 42 (3), 1872–1888. 
Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M., 1985. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press. 
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2001). Questionnaires: Basic Psychological Needs Scales. 
Gagné, M. & Deci, E.L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Organizational Behavior, 26, 331-362. 
Von Wartburg, I., Rost, K., & Teichert, T. (2006). The creation of social and intellectual capital in virtual communities of practice: shaping social structure in virtual communities of practice. International Journal of Learning and Change, 1(3), 299-316. 

Yoon, C., & Rolland, E. (2012). Knowledge-sharing in virtual communities: familiarity, anonymity and self-determination theory. Behaviour & Information Technology, 31(11), 1–11.  

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Local Villages In A Globally Connected Structure – a Case Study of Social Enterprise Media in the Multinational Workplace
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Lene Pettersen, Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication and Technology, Norway

The study presented in this paper is the first to explore the relationship between knowledge professionals’ offline interaction practices with their interaction practices in their social enterprise media platform in their multinational workplace. The article points to findings from a comprehensive, mixed methods and longitudinal (2010 – 2013) case study of a knowledge intensive multinational organization with entities in over 20 countries in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. The findings point to a consistent pattern that offline practices are expanded online, and that the company’s social enterprise media has facilitated few new acquaintances for employees. This brings important insights to the field of social media and our society because enterprise media are today typically introduced in organizations to establish connections or relationships among employees that do not already know each other or that work at the same geographical place. The study shows that organizations’ online enterprise media spaces cannot be understood without reference to the social context in which they occur. This is explained in the framework of Giddens’s’ structuration theory and his later work on modernity that surprisingly few scholars have employed. 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2