Loading…

Sign up or log in to bookmark your favorites and sync them to your phone or calendar.

Session 6C [clear filter]
Wednesday, July 13
 

15:30

Session 6C: Identity: Culture & Gender
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Moderators
HM

Heather McIntosh

International Development Research Centre

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:30 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Athlete Self-Presentation on Social Media: The impact of gender and cultural norms
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Ashleigh-Jane Thompson, Massey University, New Zealand
  • Ann Pegoraro, Laurentian University, Canada

Background: 

Reflecting the growth of social media (SM), and the widespread adoption in the sports industry, scholarly inquiry has explored their use in a range of contexts. Recently, research has drawn on Goffman’s (1959) theory to explore athletes’ use of SM as a site for self-presentation, examining the nature of content posted to specific social platforms (e.g., Lebel & Danylchuk, 2012), as well as visual imagery (e.g., Geurin-Eagleman & Burch, 2015). Findings from these studies show that athletes’ use of SM appears to align with the existence of gender stereotypes of athletes in media. 

Such gender stereotypes are considered reflective of deeper sociological beliefs about sport suitability and gender in society (Pfister, 2010). Several studies have considered perceptions of sport appropriateness based on gender, categorising sports as male appropriate (e.g., basketball, soccer, weightlifting), female appropriate (e.g., ballet and figure skating) and neutral (e.g., swimming and tennis) (Koivula, 2001; Matteo, 1986). Geert Hofstede has studied national culture norms over several decades identifying four main dimensions of national culture: Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism versus Collectivism, and Masculinity versus Femininity (Hofstede, Hofstede & Minkov, 2010). For the purpose of this study, the last dimension: masculinity versus femininity will be utilized. Hofstede’s multi-year study of 76 nations indicates that masculinity is high in Japan, in some European countries (e.g. Germany, Austria and Switzerland), and moderately high in Anglo countries (e.g. Canada). Conversely, masculinity is low in Nordic countries (e.g. Sweden) and in the Netherlands and moderately low in some Latin (e.g. Portugal) and Asian countries (e.g. Thailand) (Hofstede et al., 2010). While research has considered media portrayals of athletes based on gendered sport categorisations, to date, no known research has explored this in relation to athlete self-presentation and conformity to cultural norms. 

Objective: 

The purpose of this research is to explore whether there is a difference in an athletes’ self-portrayal on Instagram based on the gender-appropriateness (Matteo, 1986) of the sport they participate in and the degree of masculinity found in their respective home countries as measured by Hofstede’s (2013) Values Survey Module (VSM). 

Methods:

A purposive sample of female and male athletes will be utilised in this study, based upon the following selection criteria. Firstly, using Hofstede’s national culture study, five countries (Netherlands, Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Japan) have been selected based on their ranking on the Masculinity dimension (from 0-100). Secondly, six sports (Rugby, Tennis, Gymnastics, Field Hockey, Volleyball and Weightlifting) were selected due to their gender-appropriate categorisation. The last step involves selecting top athletes meeting these criteria to arrive at a purposeful sample for the study. A content analytic method will then be employed to analyse their photographs, and the visual self-presentation of these athletes. 

Results: 

Once all photos are collected and coded, descriptive statistics, frequencies, and cross-tabulations will be used to analyse the data. The findings from this study will provide insight into the impact of gender and cultural norms on athlete self-presentation strategies on SM. Analysis will be completed by the 2016 Social Media and Society Conference and the full findings will be presented, along with theoretical and practical implications. 

References: 

Geurin-Eagleman, A. & Burch, L. (2015). Communicating via photographs: A gendered analysis of Olympic athletes’ visual self-presentation on Instagram. Sport Management Research. 
Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Anchor Books. 
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G.J. and Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. McGraw-Hill: New York. 
Koivula, N. (2001). Perceived characteristics of sports categorized as gender-neutral, feminine and masculine. Journal of Sport Behavior, 24, 377-393.  
Lebel, K., & Danylchuk, K. (2012). How tweet it is: A gendered analysis of professional tennis players’ self-presentation on Twitter. International Journal of Sport Communication, 5, 461–480. 
Matteo, S. (1986). The effect of sex and gender-schematic processing on sport participation. Sex Roles, 15, 417-432.
Pfister, G. (2010). Women in sport – Gender relations and future perspectives. Sport in Society, 13, 234-248.  

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Is the gender gap in science mirrored in altmetrics?
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Stefanie Haustein, University of Montreal, Canada
  • Adèle Paul-Hus, University of Montreal, Canada
  • Cassidy Sugimoto, Indiana University Bloomington, United States
  • Vincent Larivière, EBSI-UdeM, Canada

Background: 

The gender gap in science has been subject of many recent discussions and analyses. Female authors have been shown to be less productive and have less impact as reflected in the number of papers and citations (Larivière, Ni, Gingras, Cronin, & Sugimoto, 2013). However, the landscape of research dissemination and impact is changing, with the adoption of social media by scholars and the use of “altmetrics” in research evaluation. It therefore begs the question on the extent to which this new environment replicates the gender disparities observed in the old (Paul-Hus, Sugimoto, Haustein, & Larivière, 2015). Internet technologies are promoted for their ability to democratize and flatten traditional hierarchies and women indeed show a slightly higher level of participation on social networking sites (Perrin, 2015). This suggests that measures of visibility based on social media may achieve greater gender parity than citation-based impact measures.

Objective: 

Based on the social media activity of 769,695 journal articles covered by the Web of Science (WoS), this study aims to compare the amount of attention papers first-authored by male and female researchers receive via Mendeley, Facebook, Twitter, blogs and Wikipedia and to analyze any potential differences by platform and discipline.

Methods: 

Gender was determined for the first authors of 769,695 articles and reviews published in 2013 in journals covered by WoS using the method developed by Larivière et al. (2013). For each of these papers, the number of unique Twitter users, public Facebook posts, blog posts, and Wikipedia entries were obtained from Altmetric.com and the number of readership counts retrieved via the Mendeley API using DOIs. Social media events were matched to the bibliographic and citation information from WoS and analyzed by gender and discipline. Results were compared using density, coverage, and 99th percentiles of particular events (Haustein, Costas, & Larivière, 2015). Stability intervals based on 95% confidence intervals of bootstraps (1,000 replications with replacement) were computed for each indicator to test the significance of gender differences.


Results: 

The number of papers led by female (n=269,054) compared to male first authors (n=500,641) replicates the well-established gender gap. Scientific impact reflects the same pattern, as relative citation rates of papers with male exceed those of papers with female first authors in all disciplines. The results for social media visibility differ by social media platform, discipline, and indicator. Based on coverage–i.e., the percentage of papers with at least one social media event—most differences between female and male papers are small and not significant (Figure 1). Among significant results, male papers are more likely to be cited on Wikipedia or blogs, while Mendeley tends to show higher coverage for papers first-authored by women. Twitter and Facebook coverage varies according to discipline.

Future Work: 

As social media events per paper are extremely skewed and results differed between coverage, density, and 99th percentile, future work involves a more detailed analysis of the particular distributions using percentile ranks.

 

References:

Haustein, S., Costas, R., & Larivière, V. (2015). Characterizing social media metrics of scholarly papers: The effect of document properties and collaboration patterns. PLoS ONE, 10(3), e0120495. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120495

Larivière, V., Ni, C. C., Gingras, Y., Cronin, B., & Sugimoto, C. R. (2013). Global gender disparities in science. Nature, 504(7479), 211–213.

Paul-Hus, A., Sugimoto, C. R., Haustein, S., & Larivière, V. (2015). Is there a gender gap in social media metrics? (pp. 37–45). Presented at the 15th International Conference on Scientometrics and Informetrics, Istanbul, Turkey. Retrieved from http://www.issi2015.org/files/downloads/all-papers/0037.pdf

Perrin, A. (2015). Social Networking Usage: 2005-2015. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/10/08/2015/Social-Networking-Usage-2005-2015/



Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

“Relationships form so quickly that you won’t cherish them”: Mobile Dating Apps and the Culture of Instantaneous Relationships
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Tsz Hin Fung, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
  • Tien Ee Dominic Yeo, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong

Mobile dating apps with geolocative function have gained popularity for fostering social, romantic and sexual connections between proximate strangers. Existing research, however, has neglected the significance of time in the experience of app use. Through the lens of social time, this paper sheds light on users’ experience on two popular gay mobile dating apps, namely Grindr and Jack’d. Based on in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with 74 young gay men in Hong Kong, this paper identifies that the tempo and sequence produced by the specific affordances of apps shapes users’ experience. Specifically, accelerated tempo of interactions facilitated by constant connectivity, ubiquitous computing, geolocative function, and the apps’ messaging system was seen to entail instantaneous and ephemeral relationships. The interface design foregrounding profile photos and backgrounding textual self-descriptions structures the sequence of browsing and screening in a way that prioritizes physical appearance. Such a design was perceived to privilege users seeking casual hook-ups. These findings suggest that the temporality of browsing and exchange on apps is incongruous with the temporal norms prescribing formation of friendship and long-term romance. The violation of these normative expectations affects the perceived quality and satisfaction of app use, resulting in users’ frustrations. 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2