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Session 6B [clear filter]
Wednesday, July 13
 

15:30

Session 6B: User Engagement & Dynamic
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:30 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Comparing Social Media Engagement Between Two Technology Disciplines
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Brian Regan, University of Newcastle, Australia
  • Luke Regan, Raigmore Hospital, NHS Highlands, United Kingdom
  • Peter Summons, University of Newcastle, Australia

Background: 

This study was prompted by discussion among the authors about activity in the discipline of Emergency Medicine(EM), whereby practitioners and academic researchers were actively using social media to communicate with each other and in particular for transmitting information about the latest practices in patient treatment - highlighted by an active online community (FOAMeD)  (Life in the Fast Lane, n.d.) and an annual conference (SMACC) – Social Media and Critical Care. These processes provide a dynamic and cost-free platform for communicating between academia and clinical practice (Scott, et al., 2014), for which serious benchmarking has been recommended by EM practitioners  (Weingart & Faust, 2014). By contrast the multitude of conferences in the Information Technology/ Computer Science (IT/CS) space have had a tendency to polarize discussion into either academic or industry streams, with less social media engagement. This project is to explore the SM engagement between two technology focused disciplines.

Objective: 

To identify how different the social media engagement is between EM & IT/CS, and to analyse the reasons for such differences.

Methods: 

The public websites of all Australian publicly funded universities were examined to locate the names of professorial staff in IT or Computer Science schools, and academic staff in Emergency Medicine disciplines in Medical schools. The latter were harder to locate as not all medical school websites listed staff in discipline groups, resulting in 3 times the number of identified IT vs EM staff examined. But in both discipline areas any names found were then used to explore for a Twitter account. The names were then used to search for accounts on twitter and where the biographical data did not indicate a direct match – the people being followed and the pubic tweets were examined to try to confirm a link to indicate a match to the institution or relevant discipline topics. It is possible that some of the examined identities were using a false identity on Twitter but it was assumed that total anonymity did not indicate an engagement with Twitter as part of the subject’s professional activity. Whilst the existence of related Facebook accounts was examined for IT/CS staff, the privacy settings and closed nature of Facebook make it less accessible for study. Twitter was also considered more generally the platform for open professional discussions.

Results: 

Table 1. Comparison of Twitter Activity

In addition to examining Twitter involvement, for the IT/CS cohort, they were searched for on Facebook and 41 (or 22%) were found with public accounts.

The median results were included as the means in each case were raised in both disciplines by a small number of very active individuals.

Future Work: 

The initial results above reinforced the impression that IT/CS academics whilst supposedly heavily engaged with technology have shown a reluctance as a discipline to engage with social media driven by the platforms for which they are experts. During the examination of the Tweets of the accounts it was noted that there seemed a trend in the IT/CS tweets to be more public notices then a real engagement or discussion that was shown in the EM activity. The next step is to survey academics in the two disciplines to identify the details of their use of SM and to use frameworks such as in  (Ngai, Tao, & Moon, 2014) to analyse the respective engagement. This could also include more systematic analysis of the content of the Tweets.

References:

(n.d.). Retrieved January 12/1/2016, 2016, from Life in the Fast Lane: http://lifeinthefastlane.com/foam/

Ngai, E., Tao, S., & Moon, K. (2014, October 19). Social media research: Theories, constructs, and conceptual frameworks. International Journal of Information Management, 35, 33-44.

Scott, K., Hsu, C., Johnson, N., Mamtani, M., Conion, L., & DeRoos, F. (2014, October). Integration of Social Media in Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 64(4), 396-404.

Weingart, S., & Faust, J. (2014). Future evolution of traditional journals and social media medical education . Emergency Medicine Australia, 26, 62-66.


Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Is Negative Word-of-Mouth Contagious? Exploring Negative Word-of-Mouth Dynamics in Social Media Networks.
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Ting Yu, College of Economic Management, Nanchang University, China; Department of Information Management,Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan
  • Ying-Jia Huang, Department of Information Management, Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan
  • Joyce Lee, Department of Information Management, Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan
  • Chien-Lung Chan, Department of Information Management, Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan
  • K.Robert Lai, Department of Information Management, Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan

Background: The power of social media is a double-edged sword. It, on the one hand, creates a possible contagious effect regarding electronic word-of-mouth (WOM) which can be easily spread and become well-known. On the other hand, individuals and organizations might be facing serious impacts caused by negative WOM (NWOM) and their reputations might become harmed as a consequence. Prior research has highlighted that NWOM can spread faster, has greater impact and is more influential than positive WOM (PWOM). It can lead to “negative bias” (e.g. Hornik, 2015) and explosive complaint behavior, termed an “online firestorm” (Pfeffer, Zorbach and Carley, 2014). 

Objective: Researchers from multiple disciplines have highlighted that it is important to make sense of and respond to NWOM so as to reduce potentially calamitous NWOM impacts. However, the following questions remain: can explosive NWOM become mild and the dissemination of NWOM slow down? If this is possible, what is the nature of the diffusion process of NWOM in which the negativity of contagion does not occur or is reduced? To study the phenomenon of NWOM-reduction, we adopt our theoretical lens from dynamic social impact theory (Nowak, 1990). This is used to study social influences by using a dynamic systems approach to explain the motives, emotions and behaviors that emerge among individuals trying to influence each other. From this theoretical perspective, we aim to gain better understandings of the dynamic context of NWOM and consequently, offer suggestions regarding how to reclaim a level of control for companies facing crises due to NWOM. 

Methods: This study focuses on the business domain. A major motivation for business organizations investing in NWOM-reduction is its potentiality calamitous impact on revenue (Williams and Buttle, 2014). In order to address the research aim, we conduct social network analysis using a qualitative approach (Hollstein, 2011) based on data collected from a very popular online discussion forum in Taiwan. Two discussion topics of interest are considered as cases of NWOM-reduction. One is entitled “Is the Toyota a safe car?” which generated 15,716 views and 766 replies. The other is “The Apple products are getting worse after the death of Jobs, aren’t they?” containing 71,877 views and 189 replies. 

Results: Although the headings for these two discussion topics appeared neutral, they quickly attracted many people complaining the products provided by the aforementioned brands and voicing similar gripes. The negative emotions were soon intensified. While the complaining messages were passed back and forth, we observed that a changing moment occurred: NWOM became mild and at the same time PWOM turned to be very powerful. By conducting social networking analysis, we noted that the degree of closeness amongst people who supported the negative opinions was reduced while that among the strong defenders of the products increased. The outcomes demonstrate a power game between the zealots and the others in that the “zealots’ effect” and “people on the sidelines” made a significant contribution to NWOM contagion-reduction. We offer these results as a new contribution to studies in this field. 

Future Work: This study continues to investigate NWOM-reduction with more case studies. With the development of fruitful research, we hope to share further discoveries within the conference.  

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Modeling misclassifications in multilayer networks
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Devin Gaffney, Northeastern, United States

Background: 

Haythornthwaite and Wellman’s seminal work establishing the importance of multiplexity in social contacts across various communication media established from an early point that accounting for the various networks individuals interact upon is of primary importance. This work addresses a methodological concern with studies on multiplexity - specifically, this work imagines trials of synthetic multilayer networks where ties made across layers are potentially incorrect in several ways. The work then examines the effect of these incorrect ties in terms of how analyzing the diffusion of a rumor may differ from cases where all ties are correctly assigned.


Objective: 

This paper aims to contribute to methodological practices around measuring multilayer networks in emergent situations, such as a breaking news event of an online activist campaign. The issue at hand is largely concerned with failures to correctly identify cross ties between network layers, and how various failures result in different outcomes than an identical counter-factual case where those failures are not present.


Methods: 

The work employs a network modeling approach combined with a rumor diffusion model. The paper establishes several parameters of interest that approximate different types of failures in generating ties between two networks, and then modulates those parameters randomly over many stochastic realizations of the model, while always having two control cases with the same parameters for each realization to allow for a comparison between what is different in a case where failures occur. From this, a comparison one zero failure (where ties across networks are perfectly set) case against the other zero failure case and one zero failure case and the failure case (where ties across networks are imperfectly set) allows for a close examination of the impact of these failures on being able to correctly measure outcomes from the network.


Results: 

The results indicate that only certain types of errors actually damage downstream analysis of emergent events in multilayer networks. Specifically, as long as the approximate number of cross ties is close to the correct amount, even if those ties are misclassified, the results will mostly allow for a close analysis that is correct in its findings. If, however, many ties fail in the sense that those links between the networks are never drawn, the results will deviate from the control case.


Future Work: 

Future work will consider further complications arising in multilayer network situations, such as differing parameters for rumor spreading (i.e. a condition where one network spreads the rumor differently than the other) while also removing the complexity of the current work for parameters that seem to have little to no effect on differing outcomes. 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Public library SM hyperlinks: objects or object relations
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Mary Cavanagh, University of Ottawa, Canada
  • Marie-Claude Gagnon, University of Ottawa, Canada
  • Joel Rivard, University of Ottawa, Canada

Background: 

The hyperlink has been a central organizing feature and information structure of the Internet and therefore of our "hyperlinked" information society (Turow & Tsui, 2008). Hyperlinks are simultaneously information and communication structures, and material objects that render acts of media creation visible and available for distribution or circulation. By design, hyperlinks have a social purpose (Adamic, 2008); they are "not only ubiquitous; they are the basic forces that relate creative works to one another for fun, fame, or fortune" (Turow & Tsui, 2008, 4). However, recent practices suggest that the importance of the hyperlink is diminishing as SM platforms shift from their primary purpose as social networks connecting indivduals across the internet and their communities, to design as a series of single, self-contained content channels for their audiences and/or followers. 

Objective: 

Recently activist pioneering political blogger, Derakhshan, contrasted the original value attributed to links in his earliest blogging days with today's use of links, and despaired: "But links are not objects, they are relations between objects. This objectivisation has stripped hyperlinks of their immense powers" (Derakhshan, 2015). 
Specifically among public libraries have hyperlinks become only habitual objects for marketing and consumption? Or are there more compelling current arguments for embedding hyperlinks in their social media interactions? 

Taking a practice-based approach to Twitter, this paper suggests that the link remains a valuable digital information structure, agency and material mediator in the public learning commons that is the Internet. Although a tweet-based hyperlink can simply be 'consumed' as an information object, it can also participate in the larger social construction of information relationships and knowledge and learning communities. "It is the context of practice that makes something information" (Cornelius, 2014; Kallinikos, Ekbia and Nardi, 2015). 

Methods: 

This work is part of a larger study; it brings together macro and micro-level research methods from three data sources. The primary dataset consists of 85,000 tweets, RTs and follower MTs with embedded hyperlinks from Canadian public library twitter accounts (185) over a 6-month period in 2014, parsed into their primary domains. Domains mentioned more than once (61%) were classified thematically and re-inserted into the dataset for descriptive statistical analysis. Social media interviews (10) and participant observations from two of these urban libraries explored how and why staff construct their social media identities at the policy and interaction levels. Finally, online surveys of library users from these communities report on their attitudes to the library's use of social media and their personal habits. 

Results: 

Findings are organized into three themes that address both the transactional and aggregated value of public library hyperlinks embedded in micro-blogging interactions: a) perceptions of the informational and knowledge authority and trust of the public library; b) the agency of the hyperlink as a news and popular culture purveyor and mediator; c) library networks of community engagement co-constructed and sustained through the material sharing of Twitter-embedded hyperlinks. 

Future Work:

This paper complements other themes still to be published in this larger study of Canadian public libraries and their SM practices. 

References:

Adamic, Lada (2008). The social hyperlink, in J. Turow & L. Tsui, (eds.) The hyperlinked society: Questioning connections in the digital age. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 227- 249.
Cornelieus, Ian (2014). Epistemological challenges for information science: constructing information, in F. Ibekwe-SanJuan and T.M. Dousa (eds.) Theories of information, communication and knowledge: Studies in history and philosophy of science 34, Springer Science-Business Media B.V.
Derakhshan, H. (2015) Iran's blogfather: Facebook, instagram, and twitter are killing the web. The Guardian, Tuesday, 29 December. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/dec/29/irans-blogfather-facebook-instagram-and-twitter-are-killing-the-web  
Kallinikos, J. Ekbia, H, & Nardi, B. (2015). Regimes of information and the paradox of embeddedness: an introduction. Special issue – The Information Society, 31, 101-105.
Turow, J., & Tsui, Lokman. (2008). The hyperlinked society: Questioning connections in the digital age. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2