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Monday, July 11
 

08:30

Registration and Coffee Reception
Join us for morning coffee and fresh pastries!

IGLT (Ian Gulland Lecture Theater)- Atrium,
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 34
Campus Map 

Monday July 11, 2016 08:30 - 09:00
IGLT (Ian Gulland Lecture Theater) - Atrium Goldsmiths University, Building 34

09:00

Conference Opening / Welcome Remarks
IGLT (Ian Gulland Lecture Theater),
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 34
Campus Map 

Monday July 11, 2016 09:00 - 09:45
IGLT (Ian Gulland Lecture Theater) Goldsmiths University, Building 34

09:45

Coffee Break
IGLT (Ian Gulland Lecture Theater) - Atrium, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 34
Campus Map 

Monday July 11, 2016 09:45 - 10:00
IGLT (Ian Gulland Lecture Theater) - Atrium Goldsmiths University, Building 34

10:00

Workshop 1B: Social Set Analysis: A Set-Theoretical Approach to Computational Social Science with Ravi Vatrapu, Raghava Rao Mukkamala, Abid Hussain, Niels Buus Lassen and Benjamin Flesch.
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Abstract
: This tutorial proposes and demonstrates a new holistic approach to computational social science in general and big social data analytics in particular based on the social philosophy of associations, mathematics of set theory and the methods of social set analysis. The set theoretical approach addresses current theoretical challenges and methodological limitations in computational social science in general and big social data analytics in particular about social structure vs. individual agency, social order vs. complexity, common method bias, and endogeneity. This tutorial will contain both “show-and-tell” demos and “hands-on” training for formally modelling massive volumes of big social data constituting individual human online interactions as unordered sets with ideas, values, objects, artefacts, and social others and conducting event studies of a social media crises dataset from Facebook.

Pre-Workshop Prep: 
No Prerequisites Required

Workshop Contacts
Ravi Vatrapu - vatrapu@cbs.dk
Raghava Rao Mukkamala - rrm.itm@cbs.dk 

Monday July 11, 2016 10:00 - 13:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:00

Workshop 1C: Conceptual Challenges in Interdisciplinary Social Media Research with Dr. Les Carr, Dr. Mark Carrigan, Dr. Susan Halford, Dr. Evelyn Ruppert, Dr. Emma Uprichard, and John V Willshire
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building)- 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Abstract:
 Many, if not all, affirm the value of interdisciplinary collaboration in social media research, as different disciplinary backgrounds contribute different skills to the analysis of complex socio-technical objects. However such collaborations also entail conceptual challenges, encountered at the level of substantive theoretical commitments but also in terms of taken-for-granted assumptions that inform everyday practice.

The workshop as a whole will aim both to familiarise participants with common conceptual challenges confronted in interdisciplinary social media research, as well as drawing upon their own experience and understanding to unpack these challenges and explore potential routes beyond them. In doing so, we hope to develop new perspectives on these issues, including the disciplinary origins of these conceptual challenges, which can constitute the basis for further work and the production of practical toolkits to inform interdisciplinary working.

Pre-Workshop Prep: 
No Prerequisites Required

Workshop Contact
Mark Carrigan - mark@markcarrigan.net 

Monday July 11, 2016 10:00 - 13:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:00

Workshop 1D: Using Instagram for Social Research – Analysis and Outputs with Jessamy Perriam, Samantha Kaufman, Dr. Andreas Birkbak, & Andy Freeman
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) -305 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Abstract:
  At the time of writing, there are limited examples of Instagram analysis, although there is an enthusiasm to conduct more research in this area. We would like to pitch this workshop towards those who have a high interest in using Instagram for social research but have low to medium skills in analysing and communicating the data.

We would also like to explore the idea of using the workshop format almost like a scaled down version of a data sprint or data hackathon to teach participants analysis skills.

This workshop would be particularly relevant to the conference themes of Big and Small Data, Social Network Analysis and Online Community Detection.

Pre-Workshop Prep: 

If you want to participate in the analytics breakout group you may want to download Gephi (https://gephi.org/) on your laptop ahead of time. (One caveat though: if your laptop is slow or not so powerful you may not be able to run Gephi.)

Workshop Contacts:
Jessamy Perriam - jperriam@gmail.com
Samantha Kaufman - dittlof2@uwm.edu 
Andy Freeman - a.freeman@gold.ac.uk 


Note from the workshop organizers: 

*******************************************************************

We’re aware that the changes to the Instagram API has greatly changed our ability to do research since we pitched this workshop.

Because we anticipate questions about the API changes, we’ve shifted the focus of the workshop to account for that.

Here’s a brief outline of the workshop:

  • How we were previously able to do research with Instagram
  • Changes to the Instagram API and what that means for social research, including some alternatives.
  • Analysis methods for Instagram data.
  • Breakout groups for further discussion on: a) further API questions, b) analysis software (Gephi and Tableau) and c) ethics of Instagram research

A note on breakout groups

Depending on where the API breakout group takes the discussion, you may want to bring your laptop to try out some code.

If you want to participate in the analytics breakout group you may want to download the software on your laptop ahead of time. One caveat though: if your laptop is slow or not so powerful you may not be able to run Gephi. 

The ethics of Instagram breakout group will be a discussion group, so no tech is required.

We look forward to seeing you!

Jess, Andreas, Samantha and Andy


AdIf you want to participate in the analytics breakout group you may want to download the software on your laptop ahead of time. One caveat though: if your laptop is slow or not so powerful you may not be able to run Gephi. 


Monday July 11, 2016 10:00 - 13:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:00

Lunch (self-organized)
Need some ideas for your lunch hangout? Checkout these nearby options

  1. Rose Pub and Kitchen -Pizza, Pubs
  2. Nouvell Spice - Indian, Pakistani
  3. New Cross Inn - Pub
  4. The New Cross House - Pubs, British
  5. ReynA - Turkish, Coffe & Tea, Desserts
  6. Chinwag - Modern American, COffe & Tea
  7. Thailand - Thai Cusine
  8. Yao Kee - Chinese Cusine
  9. Loafers, The Pd, The Refectory, Tasette Shop - Cafe at Rishard Hoggart Building
  10. Natural Cafe - Coffee & Tea, Desserts
  11. The London Particular - Breakfast, brunch, lunch and cakes

Monday July 11, 2016 13:00 - 14:15
TBA

14:15

Workshop 2A: Analyzing Social Media Data (Tweets) from a Spatiotemporal Perspective: Using Geocoding Tools and Space-Time Analysis Methods with Ming-Hsiang Tsou,Tao Cheng and Juntao Lai.
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Abstract:
 Spatiotemporal analysis is essential for social media analytic applications, such as disease outbreak monitoring, marketing analysis, and business analytics. To understand the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of social media messages, researchers need to use geocode engines and space-time analysis methods to enhance their research models and analytic frameworks. This workshop will provide a good overview of geocoding methods for Twitter data by Dr. Ming-Hsiang Tsou and space-time analysis methods by Dr. Tao Cheng and Juntao Lai.

The geocoding method section will include various mapping approaches using geo-tagged tweets, user profile locations, place name extraction from texts, and the analysis of historical locations of individual users. We will also introduce several geocoding engines, including Google Map Geocoding API, Yahoo BOSS PlaceFinder, and OpenStreetMap Nominatim. Popular digital gazetters, such as GeoNames.org and the gazetteer of the Library of Congress (http://loc.gazetteer.us/) will also be discussed.

The section in space-time analysis methods will demonstrate how user interests and place profiles can be inferred from text harvested from geo-tagged Tweets. We will introduce an unsupervised topic modelling method, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to extract meaningful topics from Tweets, and the clustering methods to generate the profile of places based upon the space-time patterns of these topics.

Pre-Workshop Prep:
  • Participants should bring their own laptop computers and power cords for conducting web- based tutorials.

  • Participants will need to access their own Twitter accounts and install R (preferable R studio) in their computers.

Workshop Contact

Ming-Hsiang Tsou - mtsou@mail.sdsu.edu 


Monday July 11, 2016 14:15 - 15:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:15

Workshop 2B: Advanced Twitter Analytics Using TCAT and Tableau with Dr. Axel Bruns, Queensland University of Technology
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326,
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Abstract:
Particularly when working with large social media datasets, quantitative and mixed-methods approaches that draw especially on visual representations of ‘big data’ are now an indispensable part of the scholarly research and publication process. This data analytics and visualisation tutorial will focus on a number of emerging standard tools and methods for large-scale data analytics, using Twitter data to illustrate these approaches. The tutorial will introduce participants to the open-source Twitter Capture and Analysis Toolkit (TCAT) as a capable and reliable tool for data gathering from the Twitter API, and to the high-end data analytics software Tableau as a powerful means of processing and visualising large datasets. The skills gained in the tutorial are also transferrable to working with other large datasets from social media and other sources.

Pre-Workshop Prep: 

Welcome to this workshop. To participate, please make sure you bring your own laptop so that we can work through a number of hands-on exercises.

You will also need to install a trial version of Tableau Desktop (http://www.tableau.com/products/trial) ahead of time, and download the following data file from Dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/s/o2afy089xbb2kpd/Paris%20Climate%20Change%20Conference%202015.twbx?dl=0


Workshop Contact

Axel Bruns - a.bruns@qut.edu.au


Moderators
avatar for Axel Bruns

Axel Bruns

Professor, QUT
Dr Axel Bruns is an Australian Research Council Future Fellow and Professor in the Creative Industries Faculty at Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia. He leads the QUT Social Media Research Group and is the author of Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and Beyond: From Production to Produsage (2008) and Gatewatching: Collaborative Online News Production (2005), and a co-editor of the Routledge Companion to Social Media and... Read More →


Monday July 11, 2016 14:15 - 15:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:15

Workshop 2C: Small Data and Big Data Controversies and Alternatives: Perspectives from The Sage Handbook of Social Media Research Methods with Anabel Quan-Haase, Luke Sloan, Diane Rasmussen Pennington, et al.

Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Presenters
:

  • Claudine Bonneau, Université du Québec à Montréal
  • Anatoliy Gruzd, Ryerson University
  • Martin Hand, Queen’s University
  • Guillaume Latzko-Toth, Université Laval
  • Mélanie Millette, Université du Québec à Montréal
  • Anabel Quan-Haase, The University of Western Ontario
  • Diane Rasmussen Pennington, University of Strathclyde,
  • Luke Sloan, Cardiff University
  • Ravi Vatrapu, Copenhagen Business School
  • Frauke Zeller, Ryerson University

The workshop will provide an overview of critical themes to be covered in the Sage Handbook of Social Media Research Methods to be published in 2016. The Handbook is the first book to cover not only the entire research process in social media research from question formulation to the interpretation of research findings, but also to include specific chapters and examples on how data collection and analysis takes place on specific social media platforms such as Twitter and Instagram.

The workshop will focus on a critical theme that weaves through the entire handbook, namely the tensions and controversies that have emerged around two fundamental different approaches toward the study of social media: big data vs. small data. Three central themes will be explored in an interactive format that includes a live poll and feedback from the audience:

  1. The contributions to scholarship that big data and small data make and the contexts in whicheach approach is appropriate;
  2. The tension between big data analytics and small data;
  3. Approaches on how to combine and integrate bothapproaches and how they can potentially inform each other.

Pre-Workshop Prep: 
No Prerequisites Required

Workshop Contact
Anabel Quan-Haase - aquan@uwo.ca

Monday July 11, 2016 14:15 - 15:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:15

Workshop 2D: Text Analytics for Social Data Using DiscoverText & Sifter with Dr. Stu Shulman
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Abstract:
Participate in this workshop to learn how to build custom machine classifiers for sifting social media data. The topics covered include how to:
  • construct precise social data fetch queries,
  • use Boolean search on resulting archives,
  • filter on metadata or other project attributes,
  • count and set aside duplicates, cluster near-duplicates,
  • crowd source human coding,
  • measure inter-rater reliability,
  • adjudicate coder disagreements, and
  • build high quality word sense and topic disambiguation engines.


All workshop participants will get gratis access to DiscoverText for the remainder of 2016. DiscoverText is designed specifically for collecting and cleaning up messy Twitter data streams. Use basic research measurement tools to improve human and machine performance classifying Twitter data over time. The workshop covers how to reach and substantiate inferences using a theoretical and applied model informed by a decade of interdisciplinary, National Science Foundation-funded research into the text classification problem.


Participants will learn how to apply “CoderRank” in machine-learning. Just as Google said not all web pages are created equal, links on some pages rank higher than others, Dr. Shulman argues not all human coders are created equal; the accuracy of observations by some coders on any task invariably rank higher than others. The major idea of the workshop is that when training machines for text analysis, greater reliance should be placed on the input of those humans most likely to create a valid observation. Texifter proposed a unique way to recursively validate, measure, and rank humans on trust and knowledge vectors, and called it CoderRank. 

Pre-Workshop Prep: 
No Prerequisites Required 

Workshop Contact
Stu Shulman - stu@texifter.com 


Speakers

Monday July 11, 2016 14:15 - 15:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:30

Coffee Break
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Terrace,
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Monday July 11, 2016 15:30 - 15:45
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Terrace, 3rd Floor Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:45

Workshop 2A: Analyzing Social Media Data (Tweets) from a Spatiotemporal Perspective: Using Geocoding Tools and Space-Time Analysis Methods with Ming-Hsiang Tsou,Tao Cheng and Juntao Lai.
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Abstract: Spatiotemporal analysis is essential for social media analytic applications, such as disease outbreak monitoring, marketing analysis, and business analytics. To understand the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of social media messages, researchers need to use geocode engines and space-time analysis methods to enhance their research models and analytic frameworks. This workshop will provide a good overview of geocoding methods for Twitter data by Dr. Ming-Hsiang Tsou and space-time analysis methods by Dr. Tao Cheng and Juntao Lai.

The geocoding method section will include various mapping approaches using geo-tagged tweets, user profile locations, place name extraction from texts, and the analysis of historical locations of individual users. We will also introduce several geocoding engines, including Google Map Geocoding API, Yahoo BOSS PlaceFinder, and OpenStreetMap Nominatim. Popular digital gazetters, such as GeoNames.org and the gazetteer of the Library of Congress (http://loc.gazetteer.us/) will also be discussed.

The section in space-time analysis methods will demonstrate how user interests and place profiles can be inferred from text harvested from geo-tagged Tweets. We will introduce an unsupervised topic modelling method, Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to extract meaningful topics from Tweets, and the clustering methods to generate the profile of places based upon the space-time patterns of these topics.

Pre-Workshop Prep:


  • Participants should bring their own laptop computers and power cords for conducting web- based tutorials.

  • Participants will need to access their own Twitter accounts and install R (preferable R studio) in their computers.

Workshop Contact

Ming-Hsiang Tsou - mtsou@mail.sdsu.edu 


Monday July 11, 2016 15:45 - 17:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:45

Workshop 2B: Advanced Twitter Analytics Using TCAT and Tableau with Dr. Axel Bruns, Queensland University of Technology
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Abstract: 
Particularly when working with large social media datasets, quantitative and mixed-methods approaches that draw especially on visual representations of ‘big data’ are now an indispensable part of the scholarly research and publication process. This data analytics and visualisation tutorial will focus on a number of emerging standard tools and methods for large-scale data analytics, using Twitter data to illustrate these approaches. The tutorial will introduce participants to the open-source Twitter Capture and Analysis Toolkit (TCAT) as a capable and reliable tool for data gathering from the Twitter API, and to the high-end data analytics software Tableau as a powerful means of processing and visualising large datasets. The skills gained in the tutorial are also transferrable to working with other large datasets from social media and other sources.

Pre-Workshop Prep: 

Welcome to this workshop. To participate, please make sure you bring your own laptop so that we can work through a number of hands-on exercises.

You will also need to install a trial version of Tableau Desktop (http://www.tableau.com/products/trial) ahead of time, and download the following data file from Dropbox: https://www.dropbox.com/s/o2afy089xbb2kpd/Paris%20Climate%20Change%20Conference%202015.twbx?dl=0


Workshop Contact
Axel Bruns - a.bruns@qut.edu.au


Moderators
avatar for Axel Bruns

Axel Bruns

Professor, QUT
Dr Axel Bruns is an Australian Research Council Future Fellow and Professor in the Creative Industries Faculty at Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane, Australia. He leads the QUT Social Media Research Group and is the author of Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life and Beyond: From Production to Produsage (2008) and Gatewatching: Collaborative Online News Production (2005), and a co-editor of the Routledge Companion to Social Media and... Read More →


Monday July 11, 2016 15:45 - 17:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:45

Workshop 2C: Small Data and Big Data Controversies and Alternatives: Perspectives from The Sage Handbook of Social Media Research Methods with Anabel Quan-Haase, Luke Sloan, Diane Rasmussen Pennington, et al.

Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Presenters
:

  • Claudine Bonneau, Université du Québec à Montréal
  • Anatoliy Gruzd, Ryerson University
  • Martin Hand, Queen’s University
  • Guillaume Latzko-Toth, Université Laval
  • Mélanie Millette, Université du Québec à Montréal
  • Anabel Quan-Haase, The University of Western Ontario
  • Diane Rasmussen Pennington, University of Strathclyde,
  • Luke Sloan, Cardiff University
  • Ravi Vatrapu, Copenhagen Business School
  • Frauke Zeller, Ryerson University

The workshop will provide an overview of critical themes to be covered in the Sage Handbook of Social Media Research Methods to be published in 2016. The Handbook is the first book to cover not only the entire research process in social media research from question formulation to the interpretation of research findings, but also to include specific chapters and examples on how data collection and analysis takes place on specific social media platforms such as Twitter and Instagram.

The workshop will focus on a critical theme that weaves through the entire handbook, namely the tensions and controversies that have emerged around two fundamental different approaches toward the study of social media: big data vs. small data. Three central themes will be explored in an interactive format that includes a live poll and feedback from the audience:

  1. The contributions to scholarship that big data and small data make and the contexts in whicheach approach is appropriate;
  2. The tension between big data analytics and small data;
  3. Approaches on how to combine and integrate bothapproaches and how they can potentially inform each other.
Pre-Workshop Prep: 
No Prerequisites Required

Workshop Contact
Anabel Quan-Haase - aquan@uwo.ca

Monday July 11, 2016 15:45 - 17:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:45

Workshop 2D: Text Analytics for Social Data Using DiscoverText & Sifter with Dr. Stu Shulman
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Abstract: 
Participate in this workshop to learn how to build custom machine classifiers for sifting social media data. The topics covered include how to: 
  • construct precise social data fetch queries, 
  • use Boolean search on resulting archives, 
  • filter on metadata or other project attributes, 
  • count and set aside duplicates, cluster near-duplicates, 
  • crowd source human coding, 
  • measure inter-rater reliability, 
  • adjudicate coder disagreements, and 
  • build high quality word sense and topic disambiguation engines.


All workshop participants will get gratis access to DiscoverText for the remainder of 2016. DiscoverText is designed specifically for collecting and cleaning up messy Twitter data streams. Use basic research measurement tools to improve human and machine performance classifying Twitter data over time. The workshop covers how to reach and substantiate inferences using a theoretical and applied model informed by a decade of interdisciplinary, National Science Foundation-funded research into the text classification problem.


Participants will learn how to apply “CoderRank” in machine-learning. Just as Google said not all web pages are created equal, links on some pages rank higher than others, Dr. Shulman argues not all human coders are created equal; the accuracy of observations by some coders on any task invariably rank higher than others. The major idea of the workshop is that when training machines for text analysis, greater reliance should be placed on the input of those humans most likely to create a valid observation. Texifter proposed a unique way to recursively validate, measure, and rank humans on trust and knowledge vectors, and called it CoderRank. 

Pre-Workshop Prep: 
No Prerequisites Required 

Workshop Contact
Stu Shulman - stu@texifter.com  


Speakers

Monday July 11, 2016 15:45 - 17:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

17:30

Dinner (self-organized)
Monday July 11, 2016 17:30 - 19:30
TBA

19:30

Social @ The Rose (optional)
Please join us for an informal social gathering at: 
The Rose, 
272 New Cross Road,
London, SE14 6AA. 

The restaurant can be reached directly at 020 8692 3193

Full Menu available here

Monday July 11, 2016 19:30 - 21:30
The Rose 272 New Cross Road, London, SE14 6AA
 
Tuesday, July 12
 

08:30

Registration and Coffee Reception
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Weston Atrium,
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Join us for morning coffee and fresh pastries!


Tuesday July 12, 2016 08:30 - 09:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Weston Atrium Goldsmiths University, Building 2

09:00

Keynote: Susan Halford
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02,
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Susan Halford 
Director, Web Science Institute, University of Southampton, UK

Challenging Social Media Analytics 

Abstract

 This talk explores social media analytics as an emergent field of sociotechnical practice.  Situated in the wider ‘data deluge’ social media data have drawn the attention of a wide range of academic researchers, policy makers and businesses, attracted by  the promise that they appear to carry of new insights into the social world. However, initial explorations of the opportunities in these data are beginning to reveal some significant methodological challenges in working with social media data and these – in turn – challenge some of the early approaches to and claims made from them. This talk works this claim through a local history of social media data research, specifically Twitter analytics, to suggest how we might now push forward from initial optimism and subsequent critique into a new phase of research that makes the most of these data through new assemblages of research practice.

 

 

Bio

Susan Halford is Professor of Sociology and a Director of the Web Science Institute both at the University of Southampton, UK. A Geographer by training and an organizational sociologist for many years, her recent research focusses on the politics of digital data and artefacts, with particular attention to questions of method and expertise. Susan is partiularly interested in how computational processes shape the curation of digital data and has recently explored this along two dimensions (1) the impact of computational processes on knowledge - what can be known, by whom and how - and, in turn, the implications for expertise and the future of academic disciplines (see for example Halford et al 2013 Digital Futures: sociological challenges and opportunities in the emergent semantic web); and (2) the question of data provenance and applied methods of data analysis, specifically in relation to social media data (see Tinati et al 2014 Big Data: methodological challenges and approaches for sociological analysis). Throughout her work Susan is concerned to harness sociological critiques of digital data and infrastructures to develop constructive and progressive engagement between the social and computational sciences. She is also actively involved in current debates around the ethics of big data, particularly social media data and is currently chairing the revision of the 'digital sociology' ethics guidelines for the British Sociological Association.

 

 


Tuesday July 12, 2016 09:00 - 10:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:15

Coffee Break
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building), Building 2
Campus Map  

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:15 - 10:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Weston Atrium Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:30

Session 1A: Big Data
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02,
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
avatar for Dr. Dhiraj Murthy

Dr. Dhiraj Murthy

Reader of Sociology, Goldsmiths, University of London
Dhiraj Murthy’s current research explores social media, virtual organizations, digital ethnography, and big data quantitative analysis. His work on social networking technologies in virtual breeding grounds was funded by the National Science Foundation, Office of CyberInfrastructure. Dhiraj also has a book about Twitter, the first on the subject, is published by Polity Press. His work also uniquely explores the potential role of social... Read More →

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:30 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:30

Session 1B: The Urban Experience
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
MC

Mary Cavanagh

University of Ottawa, Canada

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:30 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:30

Session 1C: Academia
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
avatar for Diane Pennington

Diane Pennington

Lecturer in Information Science, University of Strathclyde

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:30 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:30

Session 1D: Analytics & Data Mining
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
avatar for Grant Blank

Grant Blank

Research Fellow, Oxford Internet Institute

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:30 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:30

Session 1E: Social & Antisocial Behaviour
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
avatar for Donna Smith

Donna Smith

Professor, Ryerson University
Donna's research focus is on commitment-trust applied to B2B and B2C settings. She is studying social media campaigns initiated by retailers.

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:30 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Big Data Methods and Methodology: prospect for innovations or stuck in traditions?
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Anu Masso, ETH Zürich, Switzerland
  • Andra Siibal, Univrsity of Tartu, Estonia
  • Maris Männiste, Univrsity of Tartu, Estonia

Background:

In this paper we aim to contribute to the discussions about the methodological shifts related to the arrival of big data era and the dangers of research biases due to the polarization of scientific community regarding their skills in big data methods and methodologies. Methodological issues related to big data have been previously studied mainly theoretically (Kitchin, 2014; Shah, Cappella, & Neuman, 2015; Housley et al., 2014) suggesting that emergence of large datasets have evoked shifts both in data analysis techniques, methods and methodologies. However, there are almost no systematic studies analysing how these methodological changes are expressed in practice, i.e. in empirical social media studies. 

Objective:

In this study we aim to fill this gap, by making meta analyses of previously conducted empirical studies that have used large social media databases and finding out the data analysis techniques, methods and methodologies used in the studies. 

Hypothesis: (1) We assume based on previous studies (Kitchin, 2014; Lewis, Zamith, & Hermida, 2013) that traditional manual methods are combined with computational techniques, rather than being replaced by those, facilitating traditional forms of interpretation and theory-building. However, we assume, that the proportion of the data-driven theory building approaches are increasing in time compared to descriptive empirist research. (2) We also suppose based on previous studies (Boyd & Crawford, 2012; Burrows & Savage, 2014) the existence of digital divide in the field of big data methodologies, creating both institutional and individual inequalities (in so that the top-tier and well-resourced universities have both better access and skills for research of big social media data). However, (3) based on previous studies (Shah et al., 2015), we assume, that methodological reflections (e.g. questions of data quality, validity of analysis, correctness of inference, ethics) are more common in studies conducted in transdiciplinary teams compared to individually conducted studies within single discipline. Furthermore, based on previous studies (Bello-Orgaz, Jung, & Camacho, 2016) we assume that the main problems and limitations the authors acknowledge have to do with access to data, privacy, streaming and online algorithms, data fusion and – visualisation. 

Methods:

In this paper the systematic literature review is combined with quantitative meta analysis methods of published academic peer-reviewed articles. The sample consists of empirical studies using social media data as basis and qualifying the study as falling into broad category of big data methodology. Articles are analysed mainly quantitatively combining standardised category schema and open coding function. We operationalize the inequality of big data by coding the articles by formal characteristics (e.g. institutional affiliation), content-related qualities (techniques, methods, methodologies used) and level of critical reflection (e.g. data quality).  

References: 
Bello-Orgaz, G., Jung, J. J., & Camacho, D. (2016). Social big data: Recent achievements and new challenges. Information Fusion, 28, 45. 
Boyd, D., & Crawford, K. (2012). CRITICAL QUESTIONS FOR BIG DATA: Provocations for a cultural, technological, and scholarly phenomenon. Information, Communication & Society, 15(5), 662–679. http://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2012.678878 
Housley, W., Procter, R., Edwards, A., Burnap, P., Williams, M., Sloan, L., … Greenhill, A. (2014). Big and broad social data and the sociological imagination: A collaborative response. Big Data & Society, 1(2). http://doi.org/10.1177/2053951714545135 
Kitchin, R. (2014). Big Data, new epistemologies and paradigm shifts. Big Data & Society, 1(1). http://doi.org/10.1177/2053951714528481 
Kshetri, N. (2014). The emerging role of Big Data in key development issues: Opportunities, challenges, and concerns. Big Data & Society, 1(2). http://doi.org/10.1177/2053951714564227 
Lewis, S., Zamith, R., & Hermida, A. (2013). Content Analysis in an Era of Big Data: A Hybrid Approach to Computational and Manual Methods. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 57(1), 34–52. http://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2012.761702 
Shah, D. V., Cappella, J. N., & Neuman, W. R. (2015). Big Data, Digital Media, and Computational Social Science. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 659(1), 6–13. http://doi.org/10.1177/0002716215572084 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

The Method to the Madness: The 2012 United States Presidential Election Twitter Corpus
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Christopher Mascaro, Drexel University, United States
  • Denise Agosto, Drexel University, United States
  • Sean Goggins, The University of Missouri, United States

Social media provides a rich environment for understanding social connections, interactions and information sharing across many aspects of society. The relative ease of access to social media data through provision of APIs by the companies has led to a significant number of studies that attempt to understand how social media fits into society and how the public uses it for discourse and information sharing. One of the existing gaps in these studies is the lack of extensive description of the data collection and processing methods. These gaps exist as a result of word limits in existing publication venues and a lack of appropriate publication venues to share this type of fundamental research. The following paper provides extensive detail as to how a 52 million corpus of Twitter data on the 2012 Presidential Election in the United States was collected, parsed and analyzed. This level of detail is imperative in studies of social media as small choices in what data to collect can have material effect on the findings. In addition to the description of the methods, the following paper provides a contribution to knowledge in providing basic characteristics of one of the largest research datasets of social media activity compiled to study political discourse. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

What can big data analysis approaches to social media tell us about the relationship between illicit drug use communities, public discourse and social change?
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Contributors:
  • Alexia Maddox, Deakin University, Australia
  • Monica Barratt, NDARC, University of NSW, Australia
  • Matthew Allen, Deakin University, Australia
  • Simon Lenton, NDRI, Curtin University, Australia

Background:

Discussion online of illicit drug taking can be seen as a knowledge sharing that creates a sense of shared community for drug users, which can lead to harm reduction and also offers social resistance to mainstream drug-use narratives (Bancroft & Reid, 2016; Barratt, Allen & Lenton, 2014). Online drug discussion and the communities of interest formed through that discussion have been common in Australia for at least twenty years. As internet communication technologies have changed during this time, so too have the ways in which that discussion occurs. Recent developments in social media therefore have created new socio-technical forms for online drug discussion. This study will focus on online public discussion via social media platforms (such as Twitter) about the recent provisions for legal supply of medicinal cannabis in Australia. Through the specific focus of this study on an illicit drug with recently legalised supply and access avenues, we seek to reduce possible harms to the online drug discussion community yet retain the benefits of studying how a stigmatised topic such as illicit drug use is engaged with through social media.

Objective: 

The aim of this research is to investigate whether and how social media is used to debate, amplify and curate discussion of illicit drugs online using a case study of recently legalised supply and access of an illicit drug. The second objective is the development of insights into the specific benefits to research of big data analytical approaches to social media that contributes insights into the online public debate of controversial topics.

Methods: 

The study will seek to characterise the communications network (including bots) of those who are commenting, curating and listening to this discussion. To do this, we will conduct the analysis within the Australian twittersphere using social media data curated by the Tracking Infrastructure for Social Media Analysis (TrISMA) archive. Through the use of Tableau, we will initially identify the communications network of those engaging with the topic of “medicinal cannabis”, associated hashtags (such as #medicinalcannabis, ‪#cannabis‪, #marijuana, ‪#MedicalMarijuana), and public figures and organisations, during key events leading up to and including the recent provisions for legal supply of medicinal cannabis in Australia. The analysis will then focus on developing a typology of actors characterised by: attempts at dominance (through frequency and volume of commenting); influence and amplification (through the dispersion of messages by retweets, quoting and modified tweets); and content curation (tweet streams that consistently reflect particular positions and paradigms in the debate).

Results: 

This research seeks to generate insight into how social media engagement contributes to the ways in which Australians discuss the complex social issues relating to drug use, focusing on a ‘liminal’ case of the legalisation of a normally illicit drug for specific medical purposes’

Future Work: 

This study will contribute to the rationale and generation of social media analysis of illicit drug discussion online. For future work, it will outline how the mechanisms for and configurations of social engagement, influence and information dissemination identified through this case study can contribute new knowledge of social change processes through big data analytical approaches to social media.

References:

Bancroft, A., & Scott Reid, P. (2016). Challenging the techno-politics of anonymity: the case of cryptomarket users. Information, Communication & Society, 1-16. doi: 10.1080/1369118x.2016.1187643

Barratt, M. J., Allen, M., & Lenton, S. (2014). ‘PMA sounds fun’: Negotiating drug discourses online. Substance Use and Misuse, 49, 987-998. 



Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Мapping and understanding affective publics on Twitter: Refugees and the Paris Attacks
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Eugenia Siapera, Dublin City University, Ireland
  • Moses Boudourides, University of Patras, Greece
  • Ioanna Iliadi, Open University of Cyrpus, Greece

Within an increasingly hostile context for refugees and following the debates on the role of social media in political participation, the proposed contribution examines how Twitter, as a public social medium participates in debating and framing the refugee crisis during additional crisis events and breaking news, such as the Paris and Brussels attacks. Although there was no corroborated evidence of any refugee involvement in the terrorist attacks, on Twitter the refugee crisis quickly became articulated with the attacks. Focusing on the two events in Paris in November 2015 and Brussels in March 2016, the proposed article examines the co-articulations of terrorism and forced migration, but also the refutations and oppositional views that emerge, and the other kinds of stories told using the same hashtags. Additionally, the analysis will examine the kinds of publics that are emerging around these stories, in order to understand how publics and stories on refugees and terrorists come together on Twitter. 

Empirically, this is a big data study, relying on harvested tweets using relevant hashtags in the two week period before and after the terrorist attacks. The analysis looks at the different co-articulated hashtags and keywords, as well as at the replies, shares and favourites of the various tweets, in order to understand the kinds of stories told at the time. The analysis will include a more detailed discourse analysis of the most shared and favourited tweets. Finally, the analysis will include geotagging and mapping of the self-ascribed identity profiles, which will provide a more detailed understanding of who participates in the making and dissemination of stories and the networked publics that emerge.  

Theoretically, the paper will make use of two constructs: Nick Couldry’s (2008) digital storytelling and Zizi Papacharissi’s (2015) affective publics. However, we argue that this body of work prioritises the dimension of the personal and connective element, but overlook the impetus for this connection, which we argue lies in the material world, including the historical material world and the digital material world. While digital storytelling and affective publics take into account the digital material, i.e. the digital infrastructures and architectures, they overlook or bracket the ways in which these are mapped onto material dimensions and experiences outside and beyond those on social media. The paper assumes a historical materialist approach which looks at the ways in which struggles for scarce material resources become entangled in storytelling and affective investment in the refugee crisis. Moreover, what is at stake here goes beyond a contribution to ‘soft structures of feeling’, as affects may be usurped by the rising right wing parties in Europe. It therefore becomes crucial to identify and explicitly link the material to the affective and to the digital.  

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Exploring the Relationship Between a ‘Facebook Group’ and Face-to-Face Interactions in ‘Weak-Tie’ Residential Communities
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Magdalena Baborska-Narozny, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland
  • Eve Stirling, Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom
  • Fionn Stevenson, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom

The emergence and thriving or dying out of social network Facebook groups aimed at connecting otherwise anonymous people that live in a single urban development is a new phenomenon. Within residential developments there are a number of common management and performance issues experienced by many isolated inhabitants and found through building performance evaluation studies. Facebook is a ubiquitous and powerful communication platform particularly popular among young adults. This paper explores the use of Facebook in relation to those issues in two cases of Facebook Group usage within residential communities in the UK. Data was collected through longitudinal digital and physical visits to the residential communities and to the Facebook Group sites. Findings are presented in relation to home learning, site/neighbourhood and self-organising initiatives. We propose that weak-tie residential communities can develop collective efficacy and work together for the overall good of the residential development through communicating on a Facebook Group. This helps to improve the physical environment, facilitating further collective action. There is a clear overlap between social media narrative and the physical experience of daily life which can help to empower residents 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Space vs. Place: Comparing Space-based Movements and Place-based Experiences at the Roskilde Festival 2015
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Chris Zimmerman, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark 
  • René Madsen, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark 
  • Henrik Hammer Eliassen, IBM Denmark, Denmark
  • Ravi Vatrapu, Copenhagen Business School & Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication and Technology, Denmark

This paper applies urban informatics methods and techniques on big data generated from the concentrated environment of the second largest music festival in the world, Roskilde Festival. First, we explain how to utilize relevant dimensions from human geography theories towards mapping a ‘Geography of Importance’. Second, we elaborate on methods deployed for collecting both mobile GPS and social media traces that the smart phone generates in physical spaces. Third, we compare and contrast the automatically geocoded presence in space and at events with the intentionally socially tagged consumption of these spaces and events as place-based experiences. In doing so, these two layers of space-based movements and place-based experiences reveal the appropriation of affordances and choices of aesthetic appreciation by the crowd at large of what is subjectively and relatively meaningful, actionable, and valuable. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Using 3D social worlds to enhance participatory urban planning
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • David Harris Smith, McMaster University, Canada
  • Frauke Zeller, Ryerson University, Canada
  • John Eyles,  McMaster University, Canada
  • Emily Eyles, University of Bristol, Canada
  • Lauren Jay Dwyer, Ryerson University, Canada
  • Hanako Smith, Tampere University, Canada

Background:

As digital and social technologies have come to shape the city and the daily lives of its citizenry, it is timely and necessary that the means by which we envision the future city is enabled by these same technologies. The changing nature of the city in the digital age, the availability of rich GIS data sets, social media networking platforms, and open source online collaborative virtual worlds, suggest that a key challenge in achieving greater citizen engagement and participation in urban planning decisions is how to best leverage both the social and technological opportunities implicit in these conditions. This Work-in-Progress paper discusses first results from a SSHRC funded project, Virtual Hamilton, which integrates the design, testing and implementation of a publicly accessible, user-friendly community planning and visualization system. The Virtual Hamilton project also aims to integrate community knowledge contribution via multiple social media tools, such as Twitter and Instagram with an open source virtual environment for city modeling.


Objective:

The Virtual Hamilton project goal is to explore novel techniques and approaches for integrating a 3D visualization platform and interactive social media for the purposes of civic engagement in community development and participatory urban planning processes. By integrating both cutting-edge High-Performance-Computing (HPC) technologies with social sciences theories and methods, the project aims to provide novel insights on the use of digital technologies to facilitate public engagement and participation in city planning.  

Methods:

The project follows an interaction design methodology (Preece et al., 2002), integrating different methods (mixed methods approach) at specific stages of the project (see Figure 1 below). In the first phase, we conducted 12 expert interviews with professional planners and 3 focus group studies to access diverse stakeholder opinions. We also staged two 100 attendee participatory planning charrettes, jointly hosted by the City of Hamilton and McMaster and Ryerson University partners. We are now in the process of evaluating and analyzing the different outcomes, which will then inform our user studies of the first prototype of the 3D virtual planning environment.

Results:

Initial analysis of the expert interviews and focus groups indicate that while participatory planning has been readily adopted as a value by municipal authorities and planning professionals, it has not been successfully implemented. Problems cited by professionals include the increased costs and workload to facilitate public participation, planning knowledge deficits on the part of the lay participants. Lay participants and business operators cited a lack of information from planning authorities and professionals and the offer of token, rather than meaningful, planning engagement. All participants, including charrette participants, responded positively to the virtual planning environment, requesting ongoing access to the environment and suggesting extended application to other planning sites and issues.

Future Work:

Future work includes detailed analysis of the data and conducting a user study of the virtual environment for participatory urban planning. 


References:

Preece, J., Rogers, Y., and Sharp, S. (2002). Interaction design: Beyond human-computer interaction. New York, NY: J. Wiley & Sons. 



Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

[CANCELLED] How Twitter reveals Cities within Cities
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors: 
  • Michela Arnaboldi, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
  • Marco Brambilla, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
  • Beatrice Cassottana, National University of Singapore, Singapore
  • Paolo Ciuccarelli, Politecnico di Milano, Italy
  • Simone Vantini, Politecnico di Milano, Italy

Cities are expanding and becoming more and more dynamic in terms of movement of population and, as a consequence, they are becoming melting pots with people of different cultures, religions and languages. In this paper, the authors use the multilingual analysis of Twitter to discover the “hidden cities” concealed within the city of Milan. Using the social media Twitter as a data source helps to detect weaker signals that are not captured through traditional census data. In this study, neighbourhoods in Milan are identified as areas where people speak mainly the same language on Twitter and these results are then compared with census data, to underline any parallelisms or discrepancies between the two sources of data. An added value of the paper is that the results are implemented within an online city dashboard, called Urbanscope. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Examining individual and collective factors affecting the adoption of social media by inter-institutional research teams
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Audrey Laplante, Université de Montréal, Canada 
  • Stefanie Haustein, Université de Montréal, Canada 
  • Christine Dufour, Université de Montréal, Canada

Background:

Social media have not only changed the way people interact in their everyday lives but have also entered academia. Researchers are starting to use general social media platforms (e.g., Twitter, Facebook) as well as specialized tools (e.g., ResearchGate, Mendeley) for the creation, management and dissemination of scholarly work. The adoption of social media by scholars faces a variety of facilitators and barriers. Known obstacles include lack of time, lack of recognition of social media activities for getting a promotion or funding, and information overload (Acord & Harley 2013; CIBER 2010; Gruzd, Staves, & Wilk 2012; Nicholas et al. 2011; Ponte & Simon 2011), while uptake is facilitated by peer influence and collaborating with scholars from other institutions (Acord & Harley 2013; CIBER 2010; Gruzd, Staves, & Wilk 2012; Procter et al. 2010). It varies across disciplines and age or level of career progression (CIBER 2010; Gruzd, Staves & Wilk 2011, 2012; Holmberg & Thelwall 2014; Nicholas et al. 2014; Pearce 2010; Procter et al. 2010; Van Noorden 2014). Maintaining or creating ties with other scholars, promoting and disseminating their research, staying informed, communicating with other scholars and sharing information (CIBER 2010; Gruzd & Goertzen 2013; Gruzd, Staves, & Wilk 2012; Nicholas et al. 2014; Pearce 2010) were identified as main motivations of scholarly social media use.

Although collaboration is essential for science and has been associated with higher impact (Larivière et al. 2015; Sonnenwald 2007), the link between social media use and collaborative research practices remains largely unexplored.

Objective:

The objective of our study is to examine how scholars use social media at different stages of the research process in the context of an inter-institutional collaborative research project. More specifically, the study aims to:

(1) provideanin-depthanalysisofusepracticesofsocialmediaateachstageofaninter-institutional collaborative research project; and

(2) explorethefactorsofadoptionofsocialmediabyteamsofresearchersininter-institutional collaborative research projects.

Methods:

A mixed-methods sequential exploratory design (Creswell & Plano Clark 2011) will be used. The first phase will consist in a multiple case study. Four to eight inter-institutional research teams from various disciplines will be selected. The results of in-depth interviews conducted with each team member will be combined with quantitative bibliometric and altmetric data in order to provide a rich and contextualized description of the individual and collective factors that affect the adoption–or non-adoption—of social media in this context. The results of this first phase will inform the second phase consisting in a Canada-wide survey of researchers, allowing for a more complete picture of the phenomenon under study.

Results:

The project is still in its early stages. Initial efforts were devoted to defining the theoretical framework. To understand why and how a team of researchers use social media, we examined prominent technology adoption models—the Diffusion of Innovation Theory (Rogers 1983), the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis 1989), and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) (Venkatesh et al. 2003)—as well as models focusing on work teams—the Adaptive Structuration Theory (AST) (DeSanctis & Poole 1994) that outlines the factors influencing technology appropriation by groups within an organization, and Constantine’s (1993) organizational reference paradigms that outlines the characteristics of four different group “personalities”. To these, we added the Theory of Information Sharing of Constant, Keisler and Sproull (1994), enriched by Jarvenpaa and Staples (2000), which will allow us to better understand the collaborative personality of each team member, in the context of a specific research team, something that is not included in traditional technology adoption models.

Future Work:

In order to complete the first phase of our research, the next steps will be to define the selection criteria for the multiple case study, and then recruit research teams that have received funding from a Canadian research

 References:

Acord, S. K., & Harley, D. (2013). Credit, time, and personality: The human challenges to sharing scholarly work using Web 2.0. New media & society, 15(3), 379-397. doi: 10.1177/1461444812465140

CIBER. (2010). Social media and research workflow. London: London’s Global University. Retrieved from http://ciber-research.eu/download/20101111-social-media-report.pdf

Constant, D., Kiesler, S., & Sproull, L. (1994). What’s mine is ours, or is it? A study of attitudes about information sharing. Information Systems Research, 5(4), 400-421. doi: 10.1287/isre.5.4.400

 

Constantine, L. L. (1993). Work organization: Paradigms for project management and organization. Communications of the ACM, 36(10), 35-43.

Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-340. doi: 10.2307/249008

DeSanctis, G., & Poole, M. S. (1994). Capturing the complexity in advanced technology use: Adaptive structuration theory. Organization Science, 5(2), 121-147. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2635011

Gruzd, A., & Goertzen, M. (2013). Wired academia: Why social science scholars are using social media. In Proceedings of the 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) (pp. 3332-3341). doi: 10.1109/HICSS.2013.614

Gruzd, A., Staves, K., & Wilk, A. (2011). Tenure and promotion in the age of online social media. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 48(1), 1-9.

Gruzd, A., Staves, K., & Wilk, A. (2012). Connected scholars: Examining the role of social media in research practices of faculty using the UTAUT model. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2340-2350. doi: j.chb.2012.07.004

Holmberg, K., & Thelwall, M. (2014). Disciplinary differences in Twitter scholarly communication. Scientometrics, 1-16. doi: 10.1007/s11192-014-1229-3

Jarvenpaa, S. L. et Staples, D. S. (2000). The use of collaborative electronic media for information sharing: An exploratory study of determinants. Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 9, 129-154.

Larivière, V., Gingras, Y., Sugimoto, C. R., & Tsou, A. (2015). Team size matters: Collaboration and scientific impact since 1900. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 66(7), 1323- 1332. doi: 10.1002/asi.23266

Nicholas, D., Watkinson, A., Rowlands, I., & Jubb, M. (2011). Social media, academic research and the role of university libraries. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 37(5), 373-375.

Pearce, N. (2010). A study of technology adoption by researchers. Information, Communication & Society, 13(8), 1191-1206. doi: 10.1080/1369118100366360

Ponte, D., & Simon, J. (2011). Scholarly communication 2.0: Exploring researchers’ opinions on Web 2.0 for scientific knowledge creation, evaluation and dissemination. Serials Review, 37(3), 149-156.

Procter, R., Williams, R., Stewart, J., Poschen, M., Snee, H., Voss, A., & Asgari-Targhi, M. (2010). Adoption and use of Web 2.0 in scholarly communications. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 368(1926), 4039-4056.

Rogers, E. M. (1983). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.
Sonnenwald, D. H. (2007). Scientific collaboration. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 41(1), 643-681. doi : 10.1002/aris.2007.1440410121

Van Noorden, R. (2014). Online collaboration: Scientists and the social network. Nature, 512(7513), 126-129.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 27(3), 425-478. 


Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Scholars' Imagined Audiences and their Impact on Social Media Participation
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • George Veletsianos, PhD, Royal Roads University
  • Ashley Shaw, University of British Columbia & Royal Roads University

Background: 

When participating online, individuals draw on the limited cues they have available to create for themselves an imagined audience (Litt, 2012). Such audiences shape users’ social media practices, and thus the expression of identity online (Marwick & boyd, 2011). While institutions encourage scholars to go online (Mewburn & Thompson, 2013), and many scholars perceive value in online networks themselves (Veletsianos, 2016), limited research has explored the ways that scholars conceptualize online audiences.

Objective: 

In this research we posed the following questions: (1) how do scholars conceptualize their audiences when participating on social media, and (2) how does that conceptualization impact their self-expression online? By answering these questions, we aim to provide a more nuanced picture of scholars’ social media practices and experiences.  

Methods: 

We employed a qualitative approach to this study. We recruited participants through a variety of methods: invitations to participate via email, through postings on blogs and social media, and through snowball sampling. From 42 responses, we selected 16 participants who represented a range of academic disciplines and roles (mean age = 41.6; S.D = 8.1; 12 self-identified as female, 3 as male, and 1 as transgender). Data were generated from two sources: semi-structured interviews with each participant, and examination of the social media spaces they used (e.g. blogs, Facebook, Twitter). Data were analyzed using the constant comparative approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). In particular, as we read a piece of data (e.g., a sentence, a paragraph) we assigned codes to indicating perceived audiences and impacts on expression of identity. Next, new data (e.g., another paragraph), were either assigned one of the pre-existing codes or assigned a new code that was created to describe the data. When new codes were created, data are re-read to examine whether the new codes could be assigned to them. Eventually, the process of constantly comparing codes and data lead to a list of codes describing the data, which were compiled into themes.

Results: 

Participants identified four specific groups as composing their social media audiences: (1) academics, (2) family and friends, (3) groups related to one’s profession, and (4) individuals who shared commonalities with them. Interviewees felt fairly confident that they had a good understanding of the people and groups that made up their audiences on social media, but distinguished their audiences as known and unknown. The known audience included those groups and individuals known to interviewees personally. The unknown audience consisted of members whom participants felt they understood much about but did not know personally. Interviewees reported using their understanding of their audience to guide their decisions around what, how or where to share information on social media. All participants reported filtering their social media posts. This action was primarily motivated by participants’ concerns about how postings would reflect on themselves or others.

Implications: 

The audiences imagined by the scholars we interviewed appear to be well defined rather than the nebulous constructions often described in previous studies (e.g. Brake, 2012; Vitak, 2012). While scholar indicated that some audiences were unknown, none noted that their audience was unfamiliar. This study also shows that a misalignment exists between the audiences that scholars imagine encountering online and the audiences that higher education institutions imagine their scholars encountering online. The former appear to imagine finding community and peers and the latter imagine scholars finding research consumes (e.g., journalists).

 

References:

Brake, D. R. (2012). Who do they think they’re talking to? Framings of the audience by social media users. International Journal of Communication, 6, 1056–1076.

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldine Publishing.

Gruzd, A., Staves, K., Wilk, A. (2012) Connected scholars: Examining the role of social media in research practices of faculty using the UTAUT model. Computers in Human Behavior, 28 (6), 2340–2350

Litt, E. (2012). Knock, Knock. Who's There? The Imagined Audience. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(3), 330-345,

Marwick, A. E & boyd.d. (2011). I tweet honestly, I tweet passionately: Twitter users, context collapse, and the imagined audience. New media & society, 13(1), 114-133

Mewburn, I. & Thomson, P. (2013) Why do academics blog? An analysis of audiences, purposes and challenges. Studies in Higher Education, 38(8), 1105-1119.

Veletsianos, G. (2016). Networked Scholars: Social Media in Academia. New York, NY: Routledge.

Vitak, J. (2012). The impact of context collapse and privacy on social network site disclosures. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 56(4), 451-470.


Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Social Media in Academia: iSchools and their Faculty Members on Twitter
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Philippe Mongeon, Université de Montréal
  • Adèle Paul-Hus, Université de Montréal
  • Fei Shu, McGill University
  • Timothy Bowman, University of Turku

Background:

Twitter is one of the most popular social media platforms inside and outside academia. Researchers use Twitter to search for and disseminate research, communicate, network, and engage with a broader audience. In the academic context, Twitter is most notably used to improve one’s visibility (Haustein, Bowman, Holmberg, Peters & Larivière, 2014; Holmberg, Bowman, Haustein & Peters, 2014; Van Noorden, 2014). Twitter activity has been receiving increasing attention by academia as a potential indicator of research impact, alongside other social media-based metrics (altmetrics). Several studies suggest that Twitter might reflect public outreach and science communication activities, not measured by traditional bibliometric indicators (Haustein et al., 2014).

Objective:

To further investigate Twitter use in academia as an extension of scholars’ scientific network and as a diffusion channel, this paper looks at the Twitter activity of a specific community: information science schools and their faculty members. More specifically, we aim to answerthe following questions: 1) How much do information science schools and their faculty members use Twitter? 2) How are the members of this community connected on Twitter? 3) What do they tweet about?

Methods:

A list of the 30 North American iSchools was obtained from the website ischools.org. Using the schools’ website, we retrieved the list of all faculty members, and then searched for their Twitter account. We found a Twitter account for the 30 iSchools and 267 (33%) of the 803 faculty members. Using the Twitter API, we retrieve the date of creation, the number of tweets, the tweets content1 and the list of followers for each account found. 

Results:

Preliminary results show a large disparity in the Twitter presence and activity of iSchools, with faculty members’ presence per institution ranging from 7% to 84% and activity ranging from 56 tweets/year to 19,067 tweets/year. Figure 1 shows the highly skewed distribution of tweets and followers where, in a Pareto-esque fashion, 20% of Twitter users send more than 80% of the tweets (left) and 20% have more than 80% of the total number of followers (right). 1 Only the last 3,200 tweets for each account are available from the Twitter API.

We applied the Blondel et al. (2008) community detection algorithm to the follower-followee network of scholars and institutions, and found eight distinct communities, mostly linked to institutional affiliation. Despite those clusters, the network is characterized by a high density of interconnections, which is not surprising given that following someone on Twitter does not require a high level of engagement. Furthermore, the most active and followed Twitter users are not central in this network, indicating that they are followed by people outside of the iSchools community. This suggests that the Twitter network is more than a simple extension of the professional network.

Looking at the 50 most frequently used hashtags by the iSchools community (Figure 2), based on the 132,638 tweets collected (24% of all tweets), one can see that library and information science related topics are among the most discussed. However, other frequently used hashtags relate to the general political and social context, showing that the iSchools community members also use Twitter to discuss topics that are not necessarily related to their work.

Conclusion:

The aim of this work was to assess the Twitter presence and activity of iSchools and their faculty members in order to determine whether it is used by scholars to expand their network and as a diffusion channel. Our results show that the Twitter network is not limited to professional connections and despite the fact that only a minority of faculty members (about 34%) have a Twitter account, these users reach a large number of people from outside the scientific community. This highlights Twitter’s potential as a tool for public outreach. In order to provide a more thorough description of the iSchools faculty members’ activity on Twitter, and to see how Twitter affordances (e.g., mentions, retweets, hashtags) are used, further studies could look at tweets content more systematically. Such studies could help understand to what extent this type of social media activity actually reflects scientists’ public outreach.

References:

Blondel, V.D., Guillaume, J.-L., Lambiotte, R., Lefebvre, E. (2008) Fast unfolding of communities in large networks. Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment (10), P10008.

Haustein, S., Bowman, T.D., Holmberg, K., Peters, I., and Larivière, V. (2014). Astrophysicists on Twitter: An in-depth analysis of tweeting and scientific publication behavior. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 66(3), 279–296.

Holmberg, K., Bowman, T.D., Haustein, S., and Peters, I. (2014). Astrophysicists’ conversational connections on twitter. PloS ONE, 9(8), e106086–e106086.

Van Noorden, R. (2014). Online collaboration: Scientists and the social network. Nature, 512


Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Social media usage in engineering student design teams: project perceptions from highly centralised students
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Sian Joel-Edgar, Bath University, United Kingdom
  • Simon Jones, Bath University, United Kingdom
  • Lia Emanuel, Bath University, United Kingdom
  • Lei Shi, Bath University, United Kingdom
  • James Gopsill, Bath University, United Kingdom
  • Chris Snider, Bath University, United Kingdom

Background: 

Social media penetration has compelled higher education and organisations to consider the role of social media in various novel pedagogical learning settings (Linna et al, 2015; Pettersson et al 2014). We explored social media communication and perceptions of undergraduate engineers involved in an industrially focused annual worldwide competition to design and develop a racing car, where students are allocated project management and team leadership responsibilities (Gargiulo & Benassi, 2000; Gällstedt, 2003; Zika-Viktorsson, A., Sundström, P., & Engwall, M, 2006). 

Objective: 

The aim of the research was to understand the views of engineering students who are highly centralised in social media networks, and if they perceive the nature of their work differently than less central team members.

Methods: 

During the project design phase, data from various sources were extracted from one academic institution. These data sources included meeting minutes, Computer Aided Design (CAD) files, project reports and Facebook communication in relation to the project’s Facebook page. This data extraction occurred between the 04-June-2013 and the 17-April-2015. Additionally, students periodically completed a questionnaire (consisting of 42 questions) about a range of project related factors. This WIP paper focuses on the analysis of the student Facebook communication in relation to the survey answers. Using the degree centrality figures for students from their Facebook network we compared these results to the survey answers using Spearmans rank correlation coefficient (small sample, unknown linear relationship, unknown number of outliers). There were 35 students who conversed via Facebook and of those a total of 23 students also completed the survey.

Results: 

We found that from the 42 questions, three questions showed a significant correlation between centrality ranking and higher answers being given in a scale from 5 (very high) to 1 (very low). The first of these significant correlations concerned individual workload with the higher centralised individuals also perceiving that their workload was higher (Rho = 0.42264). There was also a significant positive correlation with highly centralised individuals and perception of group conflict (Rho = 0.51224) and group delays (Rho = 0.61839). These findings suggest that highly centralised students perceive that their workload is higher than that of their peers. They also appear to have a holistic view of the project, identifying conflicts and potential delays in the overall group as they bring different components of the engineering project together. It is also notable that the persons identified as having the highest centrality scores were the student project manager and team leaders.

Future Work: 

The sample size in this study is small (23 individuals), but it is envisaged that the same analysis will be conducted with the 2015/16 cohort of design engineering students. This comparison between year groups will ascertain if the presented significant findings occur year-on-year rather than falsely significant. Furthermore, we wish to compare other available data sources such as the network of collaborations on project documents and CAD files, with the questionnaire results and Facebook communication to understand the digital footprint of the project manager and how, long term, we can digitally support them.

References:

Gargiulo, M., and Benassi, M. (2000) "Trapped in your own net? Network cohesion, structural holes, and the adaptation of social capital." Organization science 11.2: 183-196.

Gällstedt, M. (2003) "Working conditions in projects: perceptions of stress and motivation among project team members and project managers." International Journal of Project Management 21.6: 449-455.

Linna, P., Aramo-Immonen, A., Saari, M., Turunen, J., Jussila, J., Joel-Edgar, S., Huhtala, M. (2015) Assessment of Social Media Skills Among Vocational Teachers in Finland. EduLearn, Barcelona, Spain.

Pettersson, E., Aramo-Immonen, H., Jussila J.J. (2014) Social media utilization in b2b networks’ organisational learning – review and research agenda proposal. Journal of Mobile Multimedia, Vol. 10, No.3&4 (2014) 218 – 233

Zika-Viktorsson, A., Sundström, P., & Engwall, M. (2006) "Project overload: An exploratory study of work and management in multi-project settings." International Journal of Project Management 24.5: 385-394.



Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Accuracy of User-Contributed Image Tagging in Flickr: A Natural Disaster Case Study
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • George Panteras, George Mason University, United States
  • Xu Lu, Arie Croitoru, George Mason University, United States
  • Andrew Crooks, George Mason University, United States
  • Anthony Stefanidis, George Mason University, United States

Social media platforms have become extremely popular during the past few years, presenting an alternate, and often preferred, avenue for information dissemination within massive global communities. Such user-generated multimedia content is emerging as a critical source of information for a variety of applications, and particularly during times of crisis. In order to fully explore this potential, there is a need to better assess, and improve when possible, the accuracy of such information. This paper addresses this issue by focusing in particular on image tagging (i.e. user-assigned annotation) in Flickr. We use as case study a natural disaster event (wildfire), and assess the accuracy of user-generated tags. Furthermore, we compare these data to the results of a content-based annotation approach in order to assess the potential performance of an alternative, user-independent, automated approach to annotate such imagery. Our results show that Flickr user annotations can be considered quite reliable (at the level of ~50%), and that using a spatially distributed training dataset for our content-based image retrieval (CBIR) annotation process improves the performance of the content-based image labeling (to the level of ~75%). 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Embedded Metadata and the Circulation of Images: Tracking, Storing and Stripping
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Nathalie Casemajor, Université du Québec en Outaouais, Canada

Background:

Metadata is a set of descriptive, technical and administrative information that plays a key role in image storage, processing and circulation. Recent literature in media studies highlights the roles metadata plays in domains such as digital economies and informational infrastructures. Many of these studies focus on the music sector: in particular, they tackle the automated or manual classification of songs, as well as the algorithmic systems of recommendation (Beer, 2013; Morris, 2012, 2015). In the field of visual culture, various publications emphasize the role that metadata plays in the classification of images by amateur and professional photographers (Van Dijck, 2010; Boullier and Crépel, 2013). But few broach the distinction between embedded metadata and platform-specific metadata. The former refers to data directly stored within the image file, which allows the data to travel with the picture on its journey across platforms, whereas the latter refers to data separately stored on proprietary web servers, including keywords, geotags and other folksonomies, which are lost when the picture is copied from one platform to another.

Objective:

This paper focuses on image metadata (in particular, photographic images) to illustrate how web platforms handle images, and how these technical choices are tied to different economic models of content and audience retention. Its aim is to challenge the assumption that the more an image circulates and is appropriated on social media, the more metadata it subsequently accumulates. This paper suggests instead that there is a critical distinction between the way embedded and platform-specific metadata accumulate.

Methods:

This study is based on a set of experiments conducted on a small corpus of photographs. In collaboration with a Canadian visual artist, five images of artworks were marked with embedded metadata and steganographic information before being posted on three different platforms (Wordpress, Facebook and Instagram). Six months later, all the copies in circulation were collected through Google Image reverse search and TinEye, and their metadata were extracted via an application named Exiftool. A quantitative and qualitative analysis was conducted on the metadata to compare 1) how the transit through each platform affected the embedded information and 2) what kind of platform-specific metadata was attached to these images. A complementary analysis was conducted on Flickr and Twitter with a random set of images.

Results:

The preliminary results suggest that contrary to platform-specific metadata that stably accumulate on web servers, embedded metadata is shaped by a complex dynamic of accumulation and degradation. On the one hand, social media platforms tend to strip embedded metadata out of their users’ images (this is especially the case with platforms designed for non-professional image-sharing practices, such as Facebook), while on the other hand, social media platforms encourage users to recreate this data in a proprietary format tied to the platform. Therefore, the more an image circulates beyond the thresholds of proprietary platforms, the more its metadata becomes degraded. The images that cross boundaries between platforms and travel through various social media datascapes are the most portable (see Sterne, 2006), but the quality of their metadata is poorer. In terms of audience retention, metadata stripping increases content captivity, as it makes it more difficult for users to move their archives from one platform to another, knowing that metadata (re)creation is a time- consuming operation.

Future Work:

This paper argues that paying thorough attention to the specificities of image metadata lays the groundwork for an understanding of the broader ecology of social media. Further work on larger datasets could foster insights regarding the power and economic dynamics of data streams within and across social media (Manovich, 2012; Hochman, 2014), all the while reflecting on the politics of web platforms (Gillespie, 2010; Helmond, 2015).

References:

Boullier D. and M. Crépel (2013). Biographie d’une photo numérique et pouvoir des tags : classer/circuler. Revue d’Anthropologie des Connaissances, 7(4), 785-813.

Gillespie, T. (2010). The politics of ‘platforms’. New Media & Society, 12(3), 347-364.

Helmond, A. (2015). The Platformization of the Web: Making Web Data Platform Ready. Social Media + Society 1(2).

Hochman, N. (2014). The social media image. Big Data & Society, 1(2). Available at: http://bds.sagepub.com/content/1/2/2053951714546645 (accessed 12 January 2016). 

Manovich, L. (2012). Data stream, database, timeline: the forms of social media. Software Studies Initiative. Available at: http://lab.softwarestudies.com/2012/10/data-stream-database-timeline-new.html (accessed 12 January 2016)

Morris, J. W. (2012). Making music behave: Metadata and the digital music commodity. New Media & Society, 14(5), 850-866.

Morris, J. W. (2015). Selling Digital Music, Formatting Culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sterne J. (2006.) The mp3 as cultural artifact. New Media & Society, 8(5), 825–842.

Van Dijck, J. (2010). Flickr and the Culture of Connectivity: Sharing Views, Experiences, Memories, Memory Studies, 4(4), 401-415. 


Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Everyday Socio-Political Talk in Twitter Timelines: A Longitudinal Approach to Social Media Analytics
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Phillip Brooker, University of Bath, United Kingdom
  • John Vines, Newcastle University, United Kingdom
  • Julie Barnett, University of Bath, United Kingdom
  • Tom Feltwell, Northumbria University, United Kingdom
  • Shaun Lawson, Northumbria University, United Kingdom

Background

Increasingly, social media spaces are understood by researchers to be a valuable site of everyday politically-relevant discussions. However, qualitative usages of social media data are typically undertaken with existing tools and methods developed for more ‘traditional’ tools and methods (i.e. thematic analysis and content analysis and so on). This, we argue, misses an opportunity to develop new methods which may be more tightly attuned to the idiosyncrasies of such data. Accordingly this paper aims to provide a means of drawing on and working with such idiosyncrasies, demonstrating the value of doing with reference to an empirical case.

Objective 

Building on previous work looking at how everyday discussions around social welfare issues arise on Twitter around the broadcast of a TV show (Benefits Street) (Brooker et al, 2015), we seek to explore the possibilities arising from capturing an atypical slice of Twitter data (i.e. whole timelines) and treating those data with an atypical analytic approach (i.e. investigating timeline narratives longitudinally). Hence, this paper will dually comment on both the empirical case at hand, and the methods requirements worked out through the course of undertaking this work.

Methods

We captured timeline data of 2581 Twitter users tweeting using the ‘official’ #BenefitsStreet hashtag during the broadcasts of both series of the programme (January 2014 and May 2015), amounting to 6,260,444 tweets in total. We undertake an exploratory analysis of an arbitrarily selected subset of user timelines within the master dataset, concentrating on the pervasion of welfare discussion throughout these users’ timelines between the two series’ of Benefits Street, as well as drawing out other themes and topics that motivate these tweeters to tweet.

Results

The study elaborates on how socio-political talk on Twitter fits in with tweeters’ everyday talk around a range of different interests and topics. This study also demonstrates the potential for longitudinal analysis of timeline narratives as an innovative qualitative approach to social media data, which can tap into the depth of meaning that such data may hold for those who produce it.

Future Work

The present study stands as a first exploratory step in the analysis of the full dataset of 6,260,444 tweets, also providing more generalizable methodological grounding on which to base the idea of longitudinal research with social media timeline data. However, the complexity of applying this approach to data of this kind also requires further thought and discussion around the development of scalable computational tools for assisting qualitative researchers in the handling of such large-scale data. The present paper points the way towards solutions for both of these problems.

References

Brooker, P., Vines, J., Sutton, S., Barnett, J., Feltwell, T. and Lawson, S. (2015). Debating poverty porn on Twitter: Social media as a place for everyday socio-political talk. CHI ’15 Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 3177-3186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2702123.2702291 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Temporalities of Personal Analytics: emerging patterns of engagement with temporal data about the self
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Martin Hand, Queen's University, Canada
  • Michelle Gorea, Queen's University, Canada

Background

the proliferation of ‘self-tracking’ devices has become a recent focus of research into ‘everyday’ or ‘personal’ analytics, including historical antecedents (Crawford et al. 2015), implications for citizenship, health and biopolitics (Lupton 2014), self-tracking markets (Pantzar and Ruckenstein 2015), surveillance (Whitson 2013), and the broader ‘quantified self’ movement (Nafus and Sherman 2014). There has been relatively little qualitative analysis of the contexts in which such devices are ordinarily used, how the data is interpreted, used, and shared by individuals, and how such data relates to broader practices of temporal scheduling and coordination in daily life. This paper makes a significant contribution to knowledge, showing how such devices are becoming integrated with established technologies of marking and making time (clocks, calendars), are being used to explicitly manage time, and are ambiently shaping ‘lived time’ in diverse ways (Wajcman 2015). 

Objective

The paper aims to provide detailed empirical data on how individuals do and do not adopt self-tracking devices and negotiate their own data in terms of the temporality of personal analytics. Drawing upon in-depth interviews, we show the different ways in which these devices presume, produce, mediate, manage and shape temporal practices. 

Methods

The empirical data was gathered over several months as part of a larger SSHRC funded program concerned with the contours of ‘iTime’. The data used here is in-depth interviews (N=30) selected by quota sample to reflect the overall demographic of the university. There are two dimensions to this group being explored. First, multiple device ownership within this demographic is very high, but we know very little about their understanding and management of temporality through digital mediation, and how this relates to the specific expectations of university life, friendships and maintaining a connected presence’ across multiplying social media platforms. Second, approximately half of the sample (N=15) was selected for their ownership and use of wearable fitness applications (i.e. ‘fitbit’). This is a focused effort to understand emerging practices of self-tracking in relation to the production of temporal data about the self. We have rich data on the connections between these practices and the broader expectations within this group. Participants reflected upon their own devices and social media data during interviews. 

Results

Preliminary analysis of our data reveals continuities between existing temporal practices, but also significant novel trajectories encouraging users to (a) rethink and reshape their conception and organization of time (b) share their data across social media platforms to regulate personal time, (c) meet new expectations about temporal management being produced through the tracked data.

Future Work

These findings will enable important insights into the normative temporal expectations of self-tracking devices, and how these are understood and negotiated both through social media and a range of integrative practices. How these devices become elements of people’s media ecologies or ‘manifolds’ is crucial to understanding their relative significance (Couldry 2012). These initial findings will also be revisited alongside interview data (N=100) from other populations being gathered during 2016, concerning differences in socio-economic resources, age, and urban proximity.

References

Couldry, N (2012). Media, Society, World. Cambridge: Polity.

Crawford, K., Lingel, J., and Karppi, T. (2015). Our metrics, ourselves: A hundred years of self-tracking from the weight scale to the wearable device. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 18 (4-5), 479-496.

Lupton, D. (2014). Quantified Sex: A Critical Analysis of Sexual and Reproductive Self- Tracking Apps. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 17(4), 440–53.

Nafus, D., Sherman, J. (2014). This one does not go up to 11: the Quantified Self movement as an alternative big data practice. International Journal of Communication, 8 (11), 1784-1794.

Pantzar, M., Ruckenstein, M. (2015). The heart of everyday analytics: emotional, material and practical extensions in self-tracking market. Consumption Markets & Culture, 18(1), 92–109. 

Ruckenstein, M. (2014). Visualized and Interacted Life: personal analytics and engagements with data doubles. Societies, 4, 68-84.

Wajcman, J. (2015) Pressed for Time. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Whitson, J. (2013). Gaming the Quantified Self. Surveillance and Society, 11 (1/2), 163-167. 

 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Defining Courage: Examining Social Media & Traditional Media Response to Caitlyn Jenner’s ESPY Award
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Ann Pegoraro, Laurentian University, Canada
  • Marion Hambrick, University of Louisville, United States
Background: 

On March 15, 2015, Bruce Jenner completed a “facial-feminization surgery,” one of the last steps in the gender transition to Caitlyn Jenner (Bissinger, 2015). Prior to this transition, Jenner was arguably most famous for winning a gold medal for decathlon during the 1976 Summer Olympic Games and appearing with his family on the reality television show, Keeping Up with the Kardashians (Bissinger, 2015). Post-transition publicity included an exclusive interview conducted by Diane Sawyer for ABC’s 20/20, a Vanity Fair cover story, and a new reality television show, I Am Cait. Accompanying this media blitz, Jenner received the Arthur Ashe Courage Award during the ESPY Awards on ESPN (Bissinger, 2015). The award celebrates “individuals whose contributions transcend sports through courageous action,” and previous recipients include Muhammad Ali and Billie Jean King (Braxton, 2015). 

Objective: 

This research focused specifically on the traditional media and social media coverage occurring during and in response to Jenner’s receipt of the Arthur Ashe Courage Award at the 2015 ESPY Awards. The current study sought to analyze the top-down framing (Goffman, 1974) and bottom-up framing (Nisbett, 2010) processes in more detail. 

Methods: 

Framing allows media producers and consumers to present and better understand news events, respectively (Goffman, 1974). Pegoraro, Burch, Frederick, and Vincent (2014) noted the shift in news coverage, from news stories created and distributed solely by traditional and official media outlets to news produced and disseminated by individuals. In order to address the research purpose and questions, this study compared newspaper coverage of the ESPY Awards (Top-down framing) to social media comments (Bottom-up Framing) made on the Facebook pages of media outlets. To gather the top-down data, a LEXIS-NEXIS news search was conducted for news stories containing the following terms: “Caitlyn Jenner,” “ESPYs,” and “ESPY Awards.” Stories published within a 24-hour period during and after the event took place were collected, and their publication dates ranged from July 15, 2015 to July 16, 2015. A total of 700 stories were collected during this time period. The bottom-up sample was collected from the Facebook page of ESPN and its parent company ABC. Comments were gathered on the articles posted to that page as well as any comments posted directly to the pages that pertained to Jenner. This resulted in 26,221 comments for the sample. The researchers then utilized Leximancer, qualitative software to identify themes in both data sets. Then the researchers immersed themselves in the data to produce the final frames emerging from the data. 

Results: 

Preliminary results indicate four themes emerged from the traditional media news stories and comments made on the ABC and ESPN Facebook pages: (a) transgender conversation; (b) what constitutes courage; (c) ESPN and the ESPY Awards; and (d) Jenner’s personal life. Differences emerged in framing patterns between the two groups. Media outlets adopted a primarily positive stance in regards to Jenner, including her receipt of the award and her ability to use this platform to seek awareness and acceptance for transgender individuals. Direct quotes from Jenner were frequently included in these stories, giving a voice to Jenner and the transgender conversation. Conversely, SM users engaged in more negative conversations—against Jenner as a transgender individual and her receipt of the award, her perceived need for publicity and attention, the transgender movement and acceptance, and the ESPY Awards and ESPN’s publicity-seeking intentions. These individuals used Facebook comments to counter the more positive frames put forth by traditional media outlets, and instead favoured their personal negative frames and those espoused by likeminded individuals. 

References: 

Bissinger, B. (2015, June 30). Caitlyn Jenner: The full story. Vanity Fair. Retrieved from 
http://www.vanityfair.com/hollywood/2015/06/caitlyn-jenner-bruce-cover-annie-leibovitz 
Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. New York: Harper & Row. 
Nisbet, M. (2010). Knowledge into action: Framing the debates over climate change and poverty. In Paul D’Angelo & Jim Kuypers (Eds.), Doing frame analysis: Empirical and theoretical perspectives (pp. 43-83). New York, NY: Routledge. 
Pegoraro, A., Burch, L. M., Frederick, E., & Vincent, C. (2014). I am not loving it: Examining the hijacking of #CheersToSochi. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 15, 163-183.  

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

Meaner on mobile: Incivility and impoliteness in communicating online
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Jacob Groshek, Boston University, United States
  • Chelsea Cutino, Boston University, United States

This study explores the nature of how mobile social media may potentially be sharpening the tenor of communicating online. Specifically, randomized representative Twitter data was collected for several controversial issues and then examined to determine the extent to which mobile or web-based content tends more toward greater incivility and impoliteness. Additional analyses further model how certain dialogic features, such as explicitly mentioning other users and retweeting others’ posts positively relate to hostility in the discourse. Building on the basis of technological affordances and user negotiation in digitally mediated environments, this study contributes to a better understanding of how individuals express themselves on mobile devices as these rapidly are becoming normalized modes for communicating with one another online. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

The Roles of Sensation Seeking and Gratifications Sought in Social Networking Apps Use and Attendant Sexual Behaviors
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Tien Ee Dominic Yeo, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
  • Yu Leung Ng, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
The rise of social networking mobile apps (e.g, Grindr, Jack’d) created specifically for men who have sex with men (MSM) has generated public health concerns and conflicting studies about the impact on risky sexual behaviors. This study seeks to gain a more precise understanding of why and how MSM are using social networking mobile apps, and informs the theoretical debate concerning the impact of social networking technology on sexual risk behaviors. A questionnaire survey was conducted, both online and offline, with young MSM app-users in Hong Kong to examine their apps use (frequency, history, and exposure of own face and body) and recent sexual partnering via apps (total sexual partners [TSP] and condomless sex partners [CSP]) in relation to gratifications sought and sexual sensation seeking. The results indicated that finding sexual partners was not a high priority for using MSM apps; surveillance, relationship, and diversion motives were more important while social motive shared similar importance. App-use frequency, sex motive, and sexual sensation seeking predicted more TSP while surveillance motive predicted fewer TSP. None of these variables, however, directly predicted CSP. Sexual sensation seeking in interaction with sex or diversion motive predicted both TSP and CSP. Despite lacking significant association with sex motive or sexual sensation seeking, app-use frequency was a stronger independent predictor of TSP. While frequent app use may facilitate more app-met sexual partners, this study found no evidence indicating that apps use promote riskier sexual behavior with those partners. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:31

What role can digital technologies play as persuasive messages in preventing sexual violence against girls and women in public spaces (trains, metros, buses)?
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Lukas Labacher, McGill University, Canada

Background: 

The rate of sexual assaults in dense metropolitan spaces in Canadian cities (with 100,000 inhabitants or more) has not declined since as far back as 1999 (Perreault, 2015). This continues to be a particular concern in and around public transportation systems, such as buses, trains, and metros (Gekoski et al., 2015). In the quest to integrate technology as an innovative approach to end sexual violence against girls and women, a number of mobile phone apps (Circle of 6), crowd-sourcing websites (Hollaback!), and geo-mapping platforms (HarassMap) have been developed to help girls and women call on close friends and family as support before or after impending sexual assaults occurred. But what about influencing strangers standing in public spaces, where there is an immediate opportunity to intervene, to interrupt violence perpetrated against girls and women before it happens?

Objective and Methods: 

A three-month doctoral candidacy exam review was conducted on the title question, with a number of sub-questions explored: 1 – What theories exist informing research on nonviolent prosocial helping behaviours? 2 – What technologies (mobile phones & LCD screens) are currently being used to address sexual violence? 3 – What methods exist to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of these technologies? A second month-long review adds an examination on social work theory, practice, and policy, and on the intersectionalities between gender, identity, and the realities of victimization affecting women as well as men.

Results:

Theories explaining the Bystander Effect (Latané & Darley, 1970) and the Diffusion of Responsibility (Darley & Latané, 1968) show that people do intervene, particularly when situations are recognized as an emergency, prove to be dangerous, and fewer people are present (Fischer et al, 2011). Empathy training is not entirely effective (Schewe & O’Donohue, 1993). Persuasive technology researchers would be wise to focus less on influencing prosocial attitudes and favor showing helping behaviours exhibited in similar situations (Fabiano et al. 2003). Recognizing the value of digital technologies to support social work policy and practice is controversial (Sapey, 1997) but is growing (Goldkind & Wolf, 2015).

Future Work: 

Mass Interpersonal Persuasion (Fogg, 2008) models offer innovative solutions for designing persuasive messages in and around public transport spaces. Including pre-and post effectiveness evaluations (Gekoski et al., 2015) and men’s voices in future program and policy evolutions (Birchall, Edstrom, & Shahrokh, 2016) is the next step in this important work in improving on the efficacy (Glasgow, 2003) of bystander intervention surveys (Banyard, 2008). Future doctoral work will explore the use of visual arts-based research methodologies for social change, policy development (De Lange, Mitchell, & Moletsane, 2015), and creating networks of supportive relationships (Bock, 2012) at the local as well as international level.

References:

Banyard, V. L. (2008). Measurement and correlates of prosocial bystander behavior: The case of interpersonal violence. Violence and Victims23(1), 83–97.

Birchall, J., Edstrom, J., & Shahrokh, T. (2016). Reframing men and boys in policy for gender equality. Retrieved from ~opendocs.ids.ac.uk/ 123456789/9709/FINAL%20DESIGNED%20VERSION.pdf

Bock J. G. (2012). The technology of nonviolence: Social media and violence prevention. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 377–383.

De Lange, N., Mitchell, C., & Moletsane, R. (2015). Girl-led strategies to address campus safety: Creating action briefs for dialogue with policy makers. Agenda29(3), 118–127.

Fabiano, P. M., Perkins, H. W., Berkowitz, A., Linkenbach, J., & Stark, C. (2003). Engaging men as social justice allies in ending violence against women: Evidence for a social norms approach. Journal of American College Health52(3), 105–112.

Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmüller, A., Frey, D., ... & Kainbacher, M. (2011). The bystander-effect: a meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137(4), 517–537.

Fogg, B. J. (2008). Mass interpersonal persuasion: An early view of a new phenomenon. In Persuasive Technology (pp. 23–34). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Gekoski, A., Gray, J. M., Horvath, M. A. H., Edwards, S., Emirali, A. & Adler, J. R. (2015). ‘What Works’ in Reducing Sexual Harassment and Sexual Offences on Public Transport Nationally and Internationally: A Rapid Evidence Assessment. London, UK.

Glasgow, R. E., Lichtenstein, E., & Marcus, A. C. (2003). Why don't we see more translation of health promotion research to practice? Rethinking the efficacy-to-effectiveness transition. American Journal of Public Health93(8), 1261–1267.

Goldkind, L., & Wolf, L. (2015). A digital environment approach: Four technologies that will disrupt social work practice. Social Work60(1), 85–87.

Latané, B., & Darley, J. M. (1970). The unresponsive bystander: Why doesn’t he help? New York, NY: Appleton-Century-Croft.

Perreault, S. (2015). Criminal victimization in Canada, 2014. Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, Catalogue no. 85-002-X ISSN 1209–6393. Retrieved from statcan.gc.ca/pub/85-002-x/2015001/article/14241-eng.pdf

Sapey, B. (1997). Social work tomorrow: Towards a critical understanding of technology in social work. British Journal of Social Work27(6), 803–814.

Schewe, P., & O’Donohue, W. (1993). Rape prevention: Methodological problems and new directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 13, 667–682.



Tuesday July 12, 2016 10:31 - 12:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

12:00

13:30

Panel 2A: Digital Wildfire: examining the spread of provocative and inflammatory content on social media and exploring opportunities for the responsible governance of digital social spaces
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Panel Participants: 
  • Marina Jirotkamarina, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
  • William Housley, Cardiff University, United Kingdom
  • Omer Ranao Cardiff University, United Kingdom
  • Adam Edwards, Cardiff University, United Kingdom
  • Pete Burnapp, Cardiff University, United Kingdom
  • Matthew Williams, Cardiff University, United Kingdom
  • Bernd Carsten Stahl, De Montfort University, United Kingdom
  • Rob Procter, University of Warwick, United Kingdom
  • Helena Webb, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

In 2013 a World Economic Forum (WEF) report positioned social media as a threat to global security. The report (World Economic Forum, 2013) describes the status of hyperconnectivity created through the contemporary popularity of platforms such as Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and Twitter as a risk factor for ‘digital wildfires’ in which provocative content spreads rapidly and causes serious harm. This provocative content may take the form of a rumour, false information, hate speech, or a malicious campaign against others. When it spreads rapidly it can damage the reputation and well-being of individuals, groups and entire communities. The WEF report argues that the prevalence and potential seriousness of digital wildfires mean it is necessary to consider how they – and the harms they cause - can be managed, prevented and limited. A central practical and ethical question is: how can the prevention of harm be balanced with rights to freedom of speech?

The researchers in this panel session have been working together over the last two years to investigate the issues raised by the WEF report. The ‘Digital Wildfire’ project is part of the Research Councils UK Global Uncertainties programme and aims to establish an empirically grounded methodology for the study and advancement of the responsible governance of social media (Webb et al. 2015). In this session we report on some of the key findings from this inter-disciplinary project. This includes: the analysis of social media datasets to assess how digital wildfires emerge and unfold; examination of the interactions between users on social media and practices of ‘self-governance’ through which social media users might manage their own and others’ online behaviours; and the experiences and perspectives of key stakeholders (such as legislators, the police, civil liberties groups, anti-harassment organisations, and educators) on the challenges posed by rapidly spreading provocative content on social media. We draw on these analytic findings to explore potential regulatory tools and mechanisms on social media– in particular focusing on the ways that practices of user self-governance might be encouraged, consolidated and enhanced to limit the damage caused by digital wildfires.

Tuesday July 12, 2016 13:30 - 14:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:30

Session 2C: Identity: Professions, Institutions & Culture
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
Tuesday July 12, 2016 13:30 - 14:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:30

Session 2D: Social Media Access & Use
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
avatar for Jenna Jacobson

Jenna Jacobson

University Of Toronto
@jacobsonjenna

Tuesday July 12, 2016 13:30 - 14:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:31

Beyond the Screen Shot: Applying Filmic Methods to Online Identity Production
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Finola Kerrigan, Birmingham University, United Kingdom
  • Kathryn Waite, Birmingham University, United Kingdom
  • Andrew Hart, Birmingham University, United Kingdom

Background:

Social media offers qualitative researchers volume, richness and the promise of direct access to the lived experience of the individual.  However, the scale and complexity of social media data presents a “little big data” challenge in terms of data collection, aggregation and interpretation (Esomar 2014). Social media identity production is located within an online infrastructure that reproduces a world “out there” (Pridmore & Lyon 2011) and involves the curation of numerous data fragments within ongoing episodic narration. Established qualitative data collection and analysis can struggle to capture fully this longitudinal and iterative process. We contend that new methods of qualitative data collection and analysis are needed to capture the longitudinal adjustment to social norms; self-censorship and the translation of the self into content in order to provide a holistic understanding of the online identity production.

Objective:

Our paper synthesises filmic methods and consumer research theory to develop an innovative methodology, which captures the interactive process-based nature of social media identity production.

Methods:

We implement a four-phase mixed-methods methodology, which forms a prism of reflexive data collection and analysis.  We recruited professional filmmakers to construct films composed of a discrete chosen participant’s social media data. In the first phase, the professional filmmakers acted as expert interpreters and constructors of narrative. These filmmakers constructed a biopic of selected research subjects using longitudinal data (words, pictures, speech and music) extracted from social media platforms. The filmmakers were not informed of the research agenda and focussed solely upon the subject’s online identity as enacted on social media. The filmic process involved the synthesis and aggregation of data into a themed narrative. Second, the subject responded to the filmic representation of their online identity. Third, the filmmaker responded to the subject response. Fourth, the final films and accounts by participants and film makers were analysed.

Results:

We report on our experience of using this method and argue that this approach enhances understanding of the disclosed and the (re)-interpreted self within social media. Our work shows that social media identity production involves reconciliation with the temporal self, harmonizing multiple selves and reconciling the dichotomous public/private self. The resultant findings advance understanding of celebritisation and marketisation of the self in contexts where public and private merge in increasingly challenging ways.

Future Work:

We plan to synthesise film production and interpretive consumer research theory to propose a robust methodological framework for the presentation and analysis of social media activity. Our work will provide a nuanced and reflexive template for research into digital narrative construction and self presentation.

References:

Esomar (2014) Big Data and the Future of Qualitative Research, RW Connect, Retrieved from http://rwconnect.esomar.org/big-data-and-the-future-of-qualitative-research/, Accessed 2016-01-15

Pridmore, J., & Lyon, D. (2011). Marketing as Surveillance: Assembling Consumers as Brands, In D. Zwick & J. Cayla, (Eds), Inside Marketing (pp. 115-136). Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Tuesday July 12, 2016 13:31 - 14:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:31

Cultural Identities in Wikipedias
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Marc Miquel-Ribé, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain
  • David Laniado, Eurecat, Spain

This paper studies identity-based motivation in Wikipedia as a drive for editors to act congruently with their cultural identity values by contributing with content related to them. To assess its influence, we developed a computational method to identify articles related to the cultural identities associated to each language and applied it to 40 Wikipedia language editions. The results show that about a quarter of each Wikipedia language edition is dedicated to represent the corresponding cultural identities. The topical coverage of these articles reflects that geography, biographies and culture are the most common themes, although each language shows its idiosyncrasy and other topics are also present. Consistently with the idea that a Cultural Identity is defined in relation to others, as entangled and separated, the majority of these articles remain exclusive to each language. A study of how this content is shared among language editions reveals special links between cultures. The approach and findings presented in this study can help to foster participation and inter-cultural enrichment of Wikipedias. The dataset of articles related to the cultural identity of each language edition is made available for further research. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 13:31 - 14:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:31

Working 24/7: Identity management strategies as boundary mechanisms in a greedy institution.
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Sietske Ruijter, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • Kim van Zoest, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands

Background: 
The growing use of social media has brought both opportunities and challenges to organizations. One of these challenges is the uncontrolled spread of content on social media that could potentially damage the reputation of the organization and its members (e.g. Meijer & Kleinnijenhuis, 2006). Social identity theory can be used to explain how organizations and their members cope with such phenomena (e.g. Petriglieri, 2011). Some organizations attempt to counter negative outcomes by imposing social media standards on their members, as one of the many ways in which the organization tries to enforce their employees’ loyalty. Employees, however, are then confronted with various characteristics of what Coser (1974) and Peterson and Uhnoo (2012) refer to as a ‘greedy institution’.

Objective:
In this paper, we explain how police officers – who strongly identify with their organization and profession – cope with both threats to their organizational and professional identity emerging from external pressure (e.g. social media content) as well as demands of total commitment from their organization.

Methods: 
For this study, a mixed method approach is used. Data analysis is based on 32 semi-structured interviews and focused probes (following a Q-sorting experiment) in a large police region in The Netherlands. The interviews (which lasted from 35 minutes to one and a half hour) were executed by two researchers, tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim.

Results:
In line with social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), police officers try to maintain a positive social identity. As their identity is threatened by, for example, social media content, they engage in identity management strategies.

Contrary to what was expected based on social identity theory, police officers – who strongly identify with their organization, and even stronger with their profession – do not frequently choose an identity management strategy that actively protects their social identity in case of an identity threat. Instead of positively distinguishing their threatened identity, they, for example, conceal their police identity in private times or condemn the condemners (Petriglieri, 2011). This can be explained by the finding that the Dutch Police shows striking similarities with Coser’s (1974) description of a greedy (highly demanding) institution. The police organization wants to ensure that police employees actively protect the organizational image in case of a threat and refrain from possible image threatening behavior. In order to avoid negative organizational image and subsequent legitimacy losses, appropriate behavior is enforced by the organization under the pretext of: 

“Don’t forget… everything you do is under a magnifying glass. You, literally, live in a glass house. For the smallest mistake you might make, you could be reprimanded or even fired.” (R8)

Our focused interviews reveal that tensions arise when police employees at the same time try to protect their professional identity and their ‘personal space’ when their professional identity is threatened in private times. Police employees, then, perceive a threat not merely as an identity threat, but also as a threat to their work-private boundary. The struggle police employees experience because they, on the one hand, want to speak up to protect their threatened and so much ‘beloved’ professional identity, and on the other hand want to enjoy their off-time, is well reflected in the following quote:

“You are proud of your work (…). So, every now and then, I do get tossed back and forth, because on the one hand, you don’t like that people always talk negative about your work, but on the other hand, you don’t always feel like ending up in discussions. (…) In first instance, I would try to keep my mouth shut, but eventually, um, if I do fall for the provocation, I would defend it.“ (R21)

In accordance, police officers not merely use identity management strategies to protect their threatened identity. They also use these strategies as boundary mechanisms: to enhance vigilance against total intrusions of their personal identity.

Future Work: 
Data analysis is already at an advanced stage. A first draft of a paper will be presented at the conference. Feedback will be welcomed. The paper is one of the studies in the PhD project of the first author.

References:

Coser, L. A. (1974). Greedy institutions: Patterns of Undivided Commitment. New York: Free press.

Meijer, M. M. & Kleinnijenhuis, J. (2006). News and corporate reputation: Empirical findings

from the Netherlands. Public Relations Review, 32, 341-348.

Peterson, A. & Uhnoo, S. (2012). Trials of loyalty: Ethnic minority police officers as ‘outsiders’

within a greedy institution. European Journal of Criminology, 9 (4), 354-369.

Petriglieri, J. L. (2011). Under threat: responses to and the consequences of threats to

individual identities. Academy of Management Review, 36 (4), 641-662.


Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. G. Austin,

& S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33-47).

Monterey, CA: Brooks Cole.


Tuesday July 12, 2016 13:31 - 14:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:31

An Exploration of the Uses and Gratifications (U&G) of Twitter and its Features
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Anabel Quan-Haaseand, University of Western Ontario, Canada
  • Lori McCay-Peet, Dalhousie University, Canada

Background:

The U&G approach has a longstanding history in communication research and, most recently, social media research (Quan-Haase & Young, 2010). Past research showed that Twitter users gain a wide range of gratifications, of which the most important was a need for social connection (Chen, 2011). Johnson and Yang (2009) corroborate and expand these findings by showing that what motivates users is a need to maintain contact with friends and family, to communicate with many people simultaneously, and to pass the time. Smock et al. (2011), on the other hand, took a more targeted approach and investigated the U&G of Facebook features. The present study builds on this past research.

Objective:

While most prior research has examined the gratifications gained from the Twitter platform as a whole, we were interested in the gratifications associated with specific features. What motivations predict the use of specific Twitter features? Why do users choose to retweet or employ a hashtag? Does one feature provide different benefits from other features? Obtaining insights into what motivates users to employ specific features has three important insights. First, it will help developers as they update the site. Second, it will inform how microblogging works in the context of user needs. Finally, it will provide a more fine-tuned understanding for why users prefer one social media tool to another. Past work by Quan-Haase and Young (2010) has called for a need for more comparative research. We need to understand how social media platforms work in relation to one another, as a majority of users adopt more than one platform (Duggan et al., 2015).


Methods:

A paper- and web-based survey was used to collect data relating to social media use. Participants were predominantly women (74%) with an average age of 28. Of the initial pool of 222 participants, 162 indicated they use Twitter and 142 of these completed the survey. Twitter users were asked about their frequency of use of features (e.g., tweet, retweet), based on previous work by Coursaris et al. (2013). Factor analysis was used to help develop U&G variables that could be included in six multivariate analyses with six Twitter features as the dependent variables and the U&G variables as the independent variables. 

Results:

More than half of the participants (56%) reported using Twitter for four years or more, though they tended to use Twitter less than one hour per day (59%). The majority of the participants used the following features at least weekly: timeline, tweet, retweet, #, @, and search. Not unlike the Facebook (Smock et al. (2013), features were correlated (.49 to .78), but were not measuring the same things. Four U&G factors were extracted using principal components analysis: (1) Professional, (2) Leisure, (3) Social, and (4) Escape. Several U&G items were removed during analysis due to cross- or low-loading. Some of Coursaris et al.’s (2013) original factors converged, but were retained as the composites made sense at face value (e.g., information and professional advancement).

All six multiple regression analyses were significant (p < .001). All six twitter features share a significant relationship to the Professional U&G of Twitter. In contrast, Escape was not significantly related to any features. The Leisure U&G shared a significant relationship with participants’ timeline viewing (p < 0.001) and use of the search function (p < .5). Social U&G were significantly related to timeline (p < .05), tweet (p < .01), and @ (p < .01).


Future Work:

The results indicate that specific features are related to different U&G constructs and suggest the potential of operationalizing U&G factors through Twitter feature use. Further, big data analysis has the potential to expand on this work by showing what features users are making use of in what contexts. This work establishes a baseline for future work that will allow to compare various social media platforms and show how they provide different U&G for users in different social contexts. 

References:

Chen, G. M. (2011). Tweet this: A uses and gratifications perspective on how active Twitter use gratifies a need to connect with others. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(2), 755–762.

Coursaris, C. K., Sung, J., Osch, W. Van, & Yun, Y. (2013). Disentangling Twitter’s adoption and use (dis)continuance: A theoretical and empirical amalgamation of uses and gratifications and diffusion of innovations. Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, 5(1), 57–83.

Duggan, M., et al. (2015). Social media update 2014: While Facebook remains the most popular site, other platforms see higher rates of growth. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/01/09/social-media-update-2014/

Johnson, P. R., & Yang, S.U. (2009). U&G of Twitter: An examination of user motives and satisfaction of Twitter use. Paper presented at the Communication Technology Division of the annual convention of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Boston, Massachusetts.

Quan-Haase, A., & Young, A. L. (2010). Uses and gratifications of social media: A comparison of Facebook and instant messaging. Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society, 30(5), 350–361. Retrieved from http://bst.sagepub.com/content/30/5/350.abstract

Smock, A. D., Ellison, N. B., Lampe, C., & Wohn, D. Y. (2011). Facebook as a toolkit: A uses and gratification approach to unbundling feature use. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(6), 2322–2329. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2011.07.011 


Tuesday July 12, 2016 13:31 - 14:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:31

Examining the Moderating Role of Personality Traits in the Effect of Microblogging Usage on Social Capital
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Yu Guo, Macau University of Science and Technology, China

Background: 

There are also trends in social media research to explore the process and mechanism of social media impact, for instance, whether the effect depends on individuals’ intrinsic properties or particular features of their environment. Previous studies generally considered individual characteristics such as personalities as independent predictors of social media behaviour as well as its outcomes, but paid little attention to the potential bridging role of a user’s personality in the process of effects occurring.

An earlier study (Swickert, Hittner, Harris, & Herring, 2002) considered the moderating role of personality in the association between Internet use and social support, and found marginally significant interaction effects. A recent research (Kim, Hsu, & Zuniga, 2013) found that impact of social media on civic participation and discussion heterogeneity was moderated by individuals’ extraversion and openness to experience. To investigate the role of personalities in the association between social media use and perceived social capital, this study applied the Five-Factor Model (FFM), which is also known as the Big Five. The FFM divides personality into five dimensions, including extraversion, openness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness, which have greatly helped previous research involving the investigation of individual differences (Barrick & Mount, 1991).

Objective: 

Given the above, the present study took steps to explore the moderation effects of personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness) in the relationship between social media use and interpersonal relationships.

Methods: 

An online survey was carried out by the research faculty of media and communication located at the Hokkaido University. Questionnaire was designed based on previous studies and posted on the web-survey platform of a research institute. An invitation email with the URL link to the electronic version of the questionnaire was sent to Chinese Weibo users of the panel of the research institute. Within one week, a total of 821 valid samples (male=400, female=421) with a response rate of 28.4% were collected for analyses in the present study.

Results: 

Results of hierarchical regression suggested that personality traits, including extraversion, openness, neuroticism, and agreeableness, have potential power to determine the degree of relational benefits gained from social media use.

Future Work: 

Besides the findings and implications, several limitations should be addressed. One of them is related to the measurement of social capital used in this study. Items are mostly self-reported judgments rather than real estimation of social capital. Therefore, future research may consider measuring social capital in more practical contexts. For instance, taking individuals’ civic participation, interpersonal trust, and social network size as dimensions to represent their actual social capital. Second, this study tested the moderation effects by using hierarchical multiple regression. However, linear regression has limitations in variable control. To achieve more rigorous explanation of the interacting effects, future research is suggested to use more sophisticated methodologies that can better rule out the intervention of irrelevant variables, for instance, using the structural equation modeling.

References:

Kim, Yonghwan, Hsu, Shih-Hsien, & Zuniga, Homero Gill de. (2013). Influence of social media use on discussion network heterogeneity and civic engagement: The moderating role of personality traits. Journal of Communication, 63, 498-516.

Barrick, Murray R, & Mount, Michael K. (1991). The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta‐analysis. Personnel psychology, 44(1), 1-26.

Swickert, Rhonda J, Hittner, James B, Harris, Jamie L, & Herring, Jennifer A. (2002). Relationships among Internet use, personality, and social support. Computers in Human Behavior, 18(4), 437-451.


Tuesday July 12, 2016 13:31 - 14:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:31

The Social Structuration of Six Major Social Media Platforms in the United Kingdom: Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Instagram, Google+ and Pinterest
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Grant Blank, Oxford Internet Institute, United Kingdom
  • Christoph Lutz, BI Norwegian Business School, Norway

Sociological studies on the Internet have often examined digital inequalities. These studies show how Internet access, skills, uses and outcomes vary between different population segments. However, we know more about social inequalities in general Internet use than in social media use. Especially, we lack differentiated statistical evidence of the social profiles of distinct social media platforms. To address this issue, we use a large survey data set in the United Kingdom and investigate the social structuration of six major social media platforms. We find that age and socio-economic status are driving forces of several – but not all – of these platforms. Aggregating platform adoption into a general measure of social media use blurs some of the subtleties of more fine-grained indicators, namely platform uses and specific activities, such as status updating and commenting. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 13:31 - 14:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:30

Coffee Break
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Weston Atrium, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:30 - 14:45
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Weston Atrium Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:45

Session 3A: Journalism & Propaganda
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
avatar for Dr. Dhiraj Murthy

Dr. Dhiraj Murthy

Reader of Sociology, Goldsmiths, University of London
Dhiraj Murthy’s current research explores social media, virtual organizations, digital ethnography, and big data quantitative analysis. His work on social networking technologies in virtual breeding grounds was funded by the National Science Foundation, Office of CyberInfrastructure. Dhiraj also has a book about Twitter, the first on the subject, is published by Polity Press. His work also uniquely explores the potential role of social... Read More →

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:45 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:45

Session 3B: Visual Social Media
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Moderators
MH

Martin Hand

Queen's University

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:45 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:45

Session 3C: Business
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
avatar for Ann Pegoraro

Ann Pegoraro

Associate Professor, Director - Institute for Sport Marketing, Laurentian University
If you are interested in social media research - let's talk!

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:45 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:45

Session 3D: Crisis Communities
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
avatar for Scott Sanders

Scott Sanders

University of Louisville
A Professional Internet Surfer... | | Scott Sanders studies the development of trust, the evaluation and management of information, and the effect of inauthentic communication within online brand communities. Specifically, he is interested in how consumers evaluate the credibility of user-generated content and how interaction within online brand communities influences credibility, trust, and brand loyalty. He hopes through his research to... Read More →

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:45 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:45

Session 3E: Health & Wellness
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:45 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

An Information Visualization System to Assist News Topics Exploration with Social Media
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Ching-Ya Lin, Computer Science Department, National Chengchi University, Taiwan
  • Tsai-Yen Li, Computer Science Department, National Chengchi University, Taiwan
  • Pailin Chen, Department of Journalism, National Chengchi University, Taiwan

With the popularity of social media, journalists often collect news materials from mass user-generated contents. However, with the outbreak of social media data, it is not easy for a journalist to see the whole picture of an event from the huge amount of data. If they only use the social media as a news source, the reported content may often become a copied view of the users, or fall into the stereotype of one-sided discussions. Aiming at improving this problem, our study uses Twitter data as an example to develop an information system to assist journalists to explore events, collect materials, and find news topics with social media. We use network analysis and natural language processing techniques to analyze the collected data and visualize the story elements. We have developed four story elements models to support different ways of exploring the data. We let the users adjust the weights on the importance of these models to retrospect the context of tweets and help users find news topics. We have designed a two-phase experiment with questionnaires to assess the appropriateness of the system. We allow the participants with various degrees of familiarity with the event to explore news topics on our system. The experimental results show that the participants have found the system to be useful and easy to use, and the journalists can explore news topics and track events in a much faster fashion. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Networked Media and Citizen Journalism in Tunisia. Insight from An European Project
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Andrea Miconi, IULM University, Italy

The speech will focus on the results of the Tempus European Project eMEDia dedicated to Cross-Media Journalism. The project is founded by the European Commission as it involves four European partners - IULM University, Tampere University, University of Barcelona, and the Mediterranean network Unimed - and three Tunisian Universities – IPSI La Manouba, Sfax and Sousse – along with the Tunisian Ministry for Higher Education and the National Syndicate of Journalists. The focus on Tunisian condition is basically due to the role played by digital activists in its recent history.

The research is dedicated to the relationship between political participation, news-making practices and the spread of social media, as it is affecting Tunisian society. As we know, Tunisia during the Arab Spring had been widely considered as a laboratory for the analysis the use of new technologies for political participation. Nonetheless, the literature about the Arab Spring actually fell short in explaining the genesis of the phenomenon, on the one hand by isolating technologies as a casual factor in the spread of demonstrations, and on the other by analyzing North-African condition through a biased perspective. Nowadays, it is interesting to focus on the consolidation of the information environment three years after the uprisings. And what is relevant, only a close, in- depth analysis of Tunisian society is able to provide an explanation of its history, and namely of the part of digital media in the overall evolution of political system. That is why the research is based on different methodologies: desk stage, interviews, and in-depth analysis of communication practices.

Networked journalism is the condition determined by the technological innovation on news-making activities: a condition upon which professional journalist can no longer be considered the only player in the information arena, and a new skill must be developed. Along with democratization, nonetheless, the so-called citizen journalism is also likely to produce some ambiguous effects, such as the lack of professional standards and the spread of information cascades, which may prove to be particularly dangerous in an evolving media market as the Tunisian one. This is why, according to the project, a new profile must be defined, which is able to manage this new condition, and which can be hardly reduced to the parameters of traditional journalistic work. Rather than simply using new devices for news visualization, communication professionals must also be able to dialogue with all new players and to accept the decentralized nature of digital environments. This networked nature of news- making seemed to emerge during the Tunisian revolution, when bloggers, journalists and activists used to retweet each other. Nonetheless, this intensification of communication exchange was inspired by the political climax of the uprising, while all media, by definition, are also supposed to bring some effects on people’s state of mind, culture and daily life routines. That is why it is worth analyzing the consolidation of these practices in a normal, post- revolutionary situation. 


Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Redefining Propaganda in the Internet Age: Social Media Wars between ISIS and the US
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Ebru Kayaalp, Istanbul Sehir University, Turkey 
  • Jack Jurich, Independent Researcher, USA
Background: 

Easy and relatively unrestricted access to the Internet has introduced numerous transformations in the way individuals interact with each other and their environment. Prominent among these changes are those related to communication studies and its substrata of propaganda. A large number of studies, which have analyzed the online terrorist propaganda activities, discuss the issue within the framework of how the terrorists ‘use’ or ‘exploit’ new media technologies for their purposes (Cohen-Almagor, 2013; Conway, 2006; Denning, 2010; Weimann, 2004; 2006). What is strongly highlighted in these studies is the instrumental role of the Internet in facilitating the success of terrorist propaganda. In contrast to this standard view of social media and Internet as a medium of communication, we offer an alternative perspective of human and technical actors as being mutually intertwined and equally possessed of agency in the process of propagandistic communications. 
 
Objective: 

This study examines how new media has facilitated sweeping changes across the entire spectrum of propaganda, ranging from production and dissemination to reception. Drawing on Actor Network Theory, an alternative view to traditional conceptualizations of the processes involved in the making of propaganda is presented. The applicability to Internet of the traditional unidirectional model of propaganda as Sender, Message and Receiver is questioned, and juxtaposed to the nondeterministic perspective that an Actor Network model offers. The online propaganda and counterpropaganda campaigns currently being waged by the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and the US State Department are presented and contrasted as examples of the old and new models of propaganda. 

Methods: 

Drawing on works from Science and Technology Studies, especially the works of Bruno Latour (1987, 1991, 2005), the study takes into account factors such as, decentralization of sources, democratization of actors, flexibility of the network with its focus on the entire propaganda making process. In contrast to the functionalist understanding, which considers the Internet as a ‘tool’ used by human beings in disseminating the messages, it regards the Internet as an actual ‘actor’ in the design and shaping of propaganda. That is to say, it is Internet that is the main actor in transforming the nature of terrorist propaganda. 

Results: 

This work-in-progress paper suggests that Internet has not only vastly increased the ease of access and extent of dissemination but more importantly, due to the inclusion of myriad actors, it has radically transformed the way propaganda is being made. Through an analysis of the social media campaigns being waged by the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and the US State Department, we argue that the Internet has brought about a shift in the field of propaganda.

References:

Cohen, Almagor R. (2012). In Internet’s way: Radical, terrorist Islamists on the free highway. International Journal of Cyber Warfare and Terrorism, 2(3), 39-58.

Conway, M. (2006). Terrorist use of the Internet and fighting back. An International Journal, 19, 9-30.

Denning, D E. (2010). Terror’s web: How the Internet is transforming terrorism. In: Jewkes Y and Yar M (eds). Handbook of Internet Crime. Devon: Willan Publishing, pp: 194-213.

Latour, B. (1987). Science in action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society. Harvard University Press: Harvard.

Latour, B. (1991) Society is technology made durable: In Law J (ed). A sociology of monsters: Essays on power, technology and domination. Routledge: London.

Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: An introduction to Actor-Network Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.

Weimann, G. (2004). www.terror.net. How modern terrorism uses the Internet. United States Institute of Peace Report, March.

Weimann, G. (2006) Virtual disputes: The use of the Internet for terrorist debates. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29 (7): 623-639. 



Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

The affordance effect: Gatekeeping and (non)reciprocal journalism on Twitter
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Jacob Groshek, Boston University, United States
  • Edson Tandoc, Nanyang Technical University, Singapore

This study examines contemporary gatekeeping as it intersects with the evolving technological affordances of social media platforms and the ongoing negotiation of professionalized journalistic norms and routines in contentious politics. Beginning with a corpus of just over 4.2 million Tweets about the racially charged Ferguson, Missouri protests, a series of network analyses were applied to track shifts over time and to identify influential actors in this communicative space. These models informed further analyses that indicated legacy news organizations and affiliated journalists were least present and only marginally engaged in covering these events, and that other users on Twitter emerged as far more prominent gatekeepers. Methodological considerations and implications about the importance of dialogic and reciprocal activities for journalism are discussed. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Analysing found non-text social media data: Options and challenges
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Diane Rasmussen Pennington, University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom

Background:

This paper is based on a chapter entitled “Coding of non-text data” (Rasmussen Pennington, in press) that has been accepted for publication in The SAGE handbook of social media research methods. The chapter outlines the special concerns associated with collecting and analyzing data found on social media sites and not in language-based text (Rasmussen Neal, 2012). The presence of non-text information on social media sites, such as photographs, videos, music, and even games on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Flickr, Pinterest, Snapchat, YouTube, and Vine, continues to grow exponentially. Despite their abundant presence, and the wealth of insight that social media researchers could obtain from them, few methods have been developed and utilized to use them. They are naturalistic, “found” data sources, just as tweets and blog posts are, but they are frequently ignored in favour of text-based data.

Objective:

The objectives of this paper are: (1) to outline qualitative research methods that can be used to analyze non-text social media data and illustrate them with examples, and (2) to set forth an agenda for developing this underdeveloped area of research methods.

Methods:

The methods to be overviewed will include compositional interpretation, quantitative content analysis, qualitative content analysis, and approaches related to content analysis such as document analysis and musical analysis. Next, methods influenced by cultural understandings will be reviewed, including approaches from the disciplines of cultural studies, visual sociology, visual anthropology, semiotic analysis, and iconography/iconology. Finally, analyses influenced by social understandings, including discourse analysis, visual social semiotics, and multimodal research, will be discussed. Since many methods will be outlined in a short amount of time, a list of resources for reading about the methods will be provided at the session.

Results:

The purpose of this paper will not present original empirical results; instead, it is meant to introduce social media researchers to potentially new data sources as well as methods for analysing them. Results from the author’s previous studies in this area will be used as examples.

Future Work:

The second part of this paper will be to discuss what the methodological future of this emerging area of research might look like, with an eye toward engaging the audience in contemplation and discussion about the unique questions surrounding non-text research. As discussed in the chapter, questions about the development and implementation of non-text methods include:

  • How can the relatively recent appearance of non-text documents achieve the same status in social science research as the long-standing text-based documents possess?
  • How can the textual and the non-textual be integrated with one another in data collection and analysis while still observing the special challenges that non-text items present to researchers?
  • Although all existing analysis methods to date are described in text, could social science researchers envision a research environment in which we use formats other than text to describe future approaches to analysing non-text documents? (Rasmussen Pennington, in press)

References:

Rasmussen Neal, D. (Ed.) (2012). Indexing and retrieval of non-text information. Berlin: De Gruyter Saur.
Rasmussen Pennington, D. (in press). Coding of non-text data. In A. Quan-Haase and L.
Sloan (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of social media research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. 


Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Hacking the mundane? A Pride-Turned-Protest on Instagram
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Ivo Furman, Faculty of Media and Communication, Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey
  • Rolien Hoyng, Department of Cultural Studies, Lingnan University Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • Mahsa Alimardani, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

While a growing body of work theorizes the role of Twitter and Facebook in social change (Gerbaudo 2012; Leavitt 2009; Poell et al. 2015; Procter et. al 2013), little has been done to explore how Instagram is used during political events such as demonstrations. This paper engages the question of whether Instagram’s affordances designate it to be a medium archiving and structuring the mundane exclusively or a tool for political mediations. We explore how users conceptualize the affordances of the platform and the agency they have in using it for their own motives. At stake is the question of whether users of this image-driven medium--who are at least to some degree invested in the politics of visibility that underlies the Pride Parade--are able to forge a disruption of, or intervention into, the mundane as it is cultivated on social media. In Turkey, this might not only mean subverting the forms of control that the platform exercises over the streams of everyday communication but also challenging censorship and mood manipulation by pro-government forces.  

Background:

On the 28th of June 2015, thousands of people gathered in a large pedestrian area of Istanbul to peacefully celebrate Istanbul Pride, an annual gay and LGBT event. Shortly after assembling, the event was suddenly disrupted by the city’s police who assailed participants with rubber pellets, tear gas, and water cannons. As typical of Turkey, a country with limited press freedoms (see Furman 2015), there was no coverage in the mass media of what occurred during the event. Nonetheless a few hours after the event, Instagram was flooded with pictures of the violence that had ensued.

Objective:

While a growing body of work theorizes the role of Twitter and Facebook in social change (Gerbaudo 2012; Leavitt 2009; Poell et al. 2015; Procter et. al 2013), little has been done to explore how Instagram is used during political events such as demonstrations. This paper engages the question of whether Instagram’s affordances designate it to be a medium archiving and structuring the mundane exclusively or a tool for political mediations. We explore how users conceptualize the affordances of the platform and the agency they have in using it for their own motives. At stake is the question of whether users of this image­driven medium­­who are at least to some degree invested in the politics of visibility that underlies the Pride Parade­­are able to forge a disruption of, or intervention into, the mundane as it is cultivated on social media. In Turkey, this might not only mean subverting the forms of control that the platform exercises over the streams of everyday communication but also challenging censorship and mood manipulation by pro­government forces.

Methodology:

Instagram is a mobile photo­sharing application and social network that offers it’s users a way to upload photos, apply different manipulation tools (f ilters) to transform visual elements of an image and share these photos (see Hochman & Schwartz 2012; Hochman & Manovich 2013). One way to share is to relate images with one another through hashtags. When a hashtag is used, the uploaded image is included with all other photos sharing the same hashtag. The act of tagging makes the image accessible not just to an inner circle, but to the wider Instagram public. Accordingly, one may argue that there is intentionality implicit in the act of tagging: by opting to use this feature, the user is making a connection between the uploaded image and the public image repositories.

A snowballing methodology was used to compile a list of hashtags related to 2015 Istanbul Pride. Then, using the Digital Methods Initiative’s Instagram scraper (Borra 2015) over 30,000 posts were collected in the days immediately after the event. Afterwards, the relationships between hashtags in the dataset were visualized with Gephi.

Results:

Gephi’s modularity algorithm detected two co­hashtag communities in the dataset. Our visualization suggests that the affordances of Instagram were used in a strategic manner by participants to insert images of violence into seemingly unconcerned feeds. A phenomenon that be tentatively described as "stream hacking" occurred.

Future Work:

As a work in progress, our paper intends to explore the qualitative dimensions of “stream hacking” on Instagram through a series of semi­structured, in­depth interviews with users who participated in the action. Questions will address conceptions of platform affordances as well as any possible motivations.

References:

Borra, E. (2015). Instagram Scrapper. English, Amsterdam: Digital Methods Initiative. Retrieved from https://tools.digitalmethods.net/beta/instagram/

Cardullo, P. (2015). “Hacking multitude” and Big Data: Some insights from the Turkish “digital coup.” Big Data & Society, 2(1). http://doi.org/10.1177/2053951715580599

Furman, I. (2015). Alternatif Medya olarak Akranlararası Kolektif Üretim: 2013 Gezi Parkı Eylemleri’nde Ekşisözlük’ün rölüne dair bir inceleme. In B. Çoban & B. Ataman (Eds.), Türkiye’de Alternatif Medya : Direniş Çağında (pp. 199–223). Istanbul: Epsilon.

Gerbaudo, P. (2012). Tweets and the streets: social media and contemporary activism. London: Pluto Press.

Hochman, N., & Manovich, L. (2013). Zooming into an Instagram City: Reading the local through social media. First Monday, 18(7). http://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v18i7.4711

Hochman, N., & Schwartz, R. (2012). Visualizing Instagram: Tracing Cultural Visual Rhythms. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Social Media Visualization (SocMedVis) (pp. 6–9). 

Hoyng, R. (2015). From Infrastructural Breakdown to Data Vandalism: Re­politicizing the Smart City? In Television and New Media.

Leavitt, A. (2009). The Iranian Election on Twitter: the first 18 Days. New York: Web Ecology Project. Retrieved from http://www.webecologyproject.org/wp­content/uploads/2009/08/WEP­twitterFINAL.pdf

Poell, T., Abdulla, R., Rieder, B., Woltering, R., & Zack, L. (2015). Protest leadership in the age of social media. Information, Communication & Society, 1–21. http://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1088049

Procter, R., Vis, F., & Voss, A. (2013). Reading the riots on Twitter: methodological innovation for the analysis of big data. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 16(3), 197–214. http://doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2013.774172 


Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Interrogating the reaction GIF: making meaning by repurposing repetition
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Tim Highfield, Queensland University of Technology, Australia 
  • Kate M. Miltner, University of Southern California, United States

Background: 

The GIF (an acronym for “Graphics Interchange Format”), was created in 1987 as a color image file format. The animated GIF was once considered emblematic of the early Web’s amateurish design aesthetics (Eppink, 2014). However, thanks to the format’s capacity to encode and compress video formats into small file sizes, the GIF has experienced a resurgence of late and become nearly ubiquitous on the social web. 

Contemporary usage of the GIF was pioneered by communities on Tumblr, 4chan, and reddit, who initially used it to make short video clips easier to share and embed. However, the phenomenon of GIF creation and usage quickly developed into a cultural practice with a specific rhetorical style (Thompson, 2013). The rich affective capabilities and unique affordances of the GIF contributed to its emergence as a go-to tool for performing identity, humor, expertise, and community in online environments (Bruckert, Davison, & Rugnetta, 2014; Shifman, 2014). 

The GIF is a polysemic format critical to contemporary online communication: it allows users to construct multiple levels of meaning, offering context-based semiotic flexibility and emphasis through repetition. Far more than just a file format, GIFs are a social and cultural force in the social media ecosystem. 

Objective: 

This work-in-progress examines how the affordances of GIFs are creatively exploited in online contexts. Specifically, this paper examines the use of/engagement with ‘reaction GIFs’, short snippets of larger media texts that are deployed as affective “responses” to other content or events. Reaction GIFs are highly performative (Ash, 2015), and this analysis explores how they offer novel ways of making meanings through intertextuality, humour and repetition. 

Methods: 

The initial case examines the use of David Bowie reaction GIFs on Tumblr. The Tumblr Bowie fandom is large and active, creating (and circulating) a rich collection of GIFs from his music and film appearances. GIFs were retrieved using the Tumblr search keywords ‘bowie’ and ‘david bowie’. The GIFs in the corpus (N = 60) were analysed twice: independently (devoid of context) and then within context. Visual, semiotic, and discourse analysis were used in combination. 

Results: 

This study indicates two specific, and often interrelated, uses of reaction GIFs: performance of a specific type of stylized affect, and performance of cultural knowledge. Two particular affordances of the reaction GIF make it especially effective for these purposes: the decontextualization of the GIF from its master narrative and the endless loop-repetition of the GIFs. The combination of these two affordances subverts the semiotics of the GIF, robbing it of any sort of stable meaning while simultaneously complicating and expanding the GIF’s possibilities for meaning-making. Although the image of David Bowie was a constant among the reaction GIFs, their usage varied widely, ranging from fan activity to snarky commentary on topics unrelated to the GIF’s master text. This malleability underlines the importance and versatility of the GIF for everyday communication, as loops transcend context, both mixing and extending meanings through repetition. 

Future Work:
 

This work-in-progress into repetition in visual social media is part of a larger research project into ‘Visual Cultures of Social Media’. 

References: 

Ash, J. (2015). Sensation, networks, and the GIF: Toward an allotropic account of affect. In K. Hillis, S. Paasonen, & M. Petit (Eds.), Networked Affect (pp. 119–133). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 
Bruckert, S. Davison, P. and Rugnetta, M. (2014). MemeFactory Book, Beta Version. 
Eppink, J. (2014). A brief history of the gif (so far). Journal of Visual Culture, 13(3), 298–306. 
Shifman, L. (2014). Memes in Digital Culture. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 
Thompson, C. (2013, January 3). The animated GIF: still looping after all these years. Wired. http://www.wired.com/2013/01/best-animated-¬gifs/ 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

When does the narwhal bacon? Internet memes as markers of online group identity
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Yimin Chen, UWO, Canada
  • Andrew Nevin, University of Toronto, Canada

Background: 

In day to day life, people signal their membership in social groups in many different ways. Whether consciously or unconsciously, individuals shape and communicate their social identities through their interactions with others (Mead, 1934). While face to face interactions feature an abundance of identity cues, including speech, clothing, and gesture, in online environments, where text dominates, many of these cues are absent. Furthermore, there is an element of anonymity, or at least pseudonymity, built into most information and communications technologies (ICT) that exacerbates identity issues (Donath, 2007).

In this paper, we argue that self-references and inside jokes in the form of internet memes – “discursive artifacts spread by mediated cultural participants” (Milner, 2013) – are used by some online communities to signal and enhance group identity. These memes can function as a sort of online secret handshake, marking those who respond appropriately as “members of a subculture [who] share a common language” (Hebdige, 1979, p.122). In addition, by sharing, mixing, and remixing memes, participants engage in a form of mediated ritual communication, whereby group identity is co-created and maintained (Miller, 2015). As the subject of research, memes may also be able to provide insight into the character of an online community. Are the most popular memes positive or negative? Do the memes reference particular domains of media or culture? How has the memetic signature of the community changed over time?

In this exploratory study, we examine the character of the Reddit community, as revealed through its use of internet memes. Reddit was initially conceived as a social news-sharing site, but has grown into “one of the most populated spaces for digital sociality on the web today” (Miller, 2015, p.2) and has proved to be fertile ground for research (Bogers & Wernersen, 2014; Tan & Lee, 2015; Singer, et al, 2014). In analyzing the “Redditor” identity memetically, we aim to develop a new approach to the study of online communities.

Objective: 

This work-in-progress seeks to compile a “memetic canon” of the Reddit community by documenting its most notable memes. Specifically, we intend to gather data on which memes Reddit users (“Redditors”) consider to be most important in defining themselves as a community and how the popularity of these memes change over time.

Methods: 

Reddit, as a community, loves to talk about itself. Discussion threads where Redditors analyze the site and each other are commonplace, as are threads aimed at explaining jokes to new users or collecting “best-of” postings. From these meta-Reddit threads, we can identify notable memes within the Reddit community. Once identified, we can track past and future references to these memes in comments posted, describe trends, and analyze Redditor responses.

Results: 

Forthcoming.

Future Work: 

As a follow up to this study, we intend to conduct surveys and interviews of the Reddit users to determine how closely the image actual Redditors have of themselves matches our derived portrait. In addition, we would like to investigate sub-groups within the “Redditor” group identity and community interactions between subreddits.

References:

Bogers, T. & Wernersen, R. (2014). How ‘social' are social news sites? Exploring the motivations for using Reddit.com. iConference 2014 Proceedings, 329 – 344.

Donath, J. (2007). Signals in social supernets. Journal of ComputerMediated Communication13(1), 231-251.

Hebdife, D. (1979). Subculture: The meaning of style. New York: Methuen.

Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago, 173-175.

Miller, C. (2015). Life in the new media landscape. gnovis, 16(2), 1-15.

Milner, R. M. (2013). Media lingua franca: Fixity, novelty, and vernacular creativity in internet memes. Selected Papers of Internet Research, 14, 1-5.

Singer, P., Flöck, F., Meinhart, C., Zeitfogel, E., & Strohmaier, M. (2014, April). Evolution of Reddit: From the front page of the internet to a self-referential community? Proceedings of the companion publication of the 23rd international conference on World wide web companion, 517-522.

Tan, C., & Lee, L. (2015, May). All who wander: On the prevalence and characteristics of multi-community engagement. Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on World Wide Web, 1056-1066.



Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 305 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

A comparative study of social media banking
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Oluwadolapo Majekodunmi, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
  • Lisa Harris, University of Southampton, United Kingdom

Background: 

With the advent of the Web, the way bank customers perform various banking activities has changed over the years which has brought about the concept of social media banking. This refers to the use of social media as a form of delivery channel for banking services which may include balance inquiries, account opening and fund transfers. Banking using social media channels is relatively new and any idea that is perceived as new should be considered an innovation worthy enough to be studied.

Objective: 

The objective of the study is to investigate and compare social media banking acceptance and adoption across two countries namely Nigeria and England and to identify what factors have significant effects on consumer attitudes and behavioural intentions towards social media banking.

Methods: 

The study will use the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model developed by Venkatesh et al (2003). This model has been selected because it incorporates a range of variables from several models that have been used to understand technology acceptance and adoption. Venkatesh et al compared and summarized eight existing models of user acceptance theories and based on their results, they refined the eight models and merged it into an integrated single model which captures elements of the different models.

The UTAUT model was developed from theories in sociology and psychology and these theories are namely the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980), the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1986), the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1985), the Motivational Model (MM) (Ryan and Deci, 2000), Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB) (Taylor and Todd, 1995), the Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) (Thompson et al, 1991), the Diffusion of Innovation theory (DOI) (Rogers, 2003), and the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) (Bandura, 1986).

A mixed method approach will be used for this study. Quantitative data will be collected using the survey method while a semi structured interview will also be conducted to get an in depth understanding of the users experience and other factors that may not be evident through the use of quantitative methods. The target population will be bank customers who use social media banking tools and data analysis would be done using statistical techniques using an appropriate software. The study will be exploratory and deductive in nature as an existing conceptual framework will be used (Bryman and Bell, 2007).

Results: 

The study will enable us find out what factors determine usage behaviour and what constructs (performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions) significantly affect the acceptance and adoption of social media banking in both countries.

Future Work: 

Future research would investigate cross culture effects on the adoption of social media banking as well as the effects of demographics on the acceptance of social media banking.

References

Ajzen, I. and Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behaviour. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

Ajzen, I. (1985). From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behaviour (pp. 13–37).

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Bryman, A., and Bell, E. (2007). Business Research Methods. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, USA.

Davis, F. (1986). Technology acceptance model for empirical testing new end-user information system: theory and results. MIT Sloan School of Management.

Rogers, E. (2003). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.

Ryan, R., and Deci, E. (2000). Self-Determination Theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development and well-being. American psychologist, 55(1), pp.68-78.

Taylor, S., and Todd, P. (1995). Decomposition and cross-over effects in the theory of planned behaviour: A study of consumer adoption intentions. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 12(2), pp.137-155.

Thompson, R., Higgins, C., and Howell, J. (1991). Personal computing: Toward a conceptual model of utilization. MIS Quarterly, 15(1), pp.125-143.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M., Davis, G., and Davis, F. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view, MIS Quarterly, 27(3) pp.425-478.

Venkatesh, V., and Zhang, X. (2010). Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology: U.S. vs. China, Journal of Global Information Technology Management. 13(1), pp.5-27.


Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

An Space-Time Approach to Profile Places based upon Social Media Data
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Tao Cheng, SpaceTimeLab, University College London
  • Juntao Lai, University College London
  • Jianan Shen, University College London

Background:

Profiling place is a picture of the social, economic and environmental facets of a place, which describe how people see, hear and more importantly interact with the spaces they inhabit. For business intelligence, profiling places is extremely useful for understanding market potential for all products and services and finding the ideal locations for new stores, franchises and service centres. 

Objective:

Most existing methods profile places based upon on a static and/or aggregated view of the place, ignoring its detailed and dynamic nature. For example, the areas around London tube stations are typical considered a place for transport. However, Victoria tube station of London is a traffic hub in the morning peak and evening peak, it is also a stations with several musical shows around, so the area is also a musical and culture place in addition to transport. King’s Cross mainly serves the transport for rush peaks, while Leicester Square is quiet in the morning, but busy in the evening since people go there for dinner and theatre activities. Therefore, to fully grasp the uniqueness of a place, the dynamic nature of the place should be considered and used in profiling places so that the subtle difference between places could be appreciated. The objective of this paper is to develop an innovative method to profile places based upon social media data. 

Methods:

A space-time approach will be developed to profile places. The space-time profiles of places will be extracted based upon geotagged Tweets in those places. Here we use the areas around London tube stations as the case study. First, topics of key interests of people around the tube stations are extracted based upon LDA topic modelling. Then, the space-time profile of the tube station areas are built as composition of the multiple topics in different time periods. Last, two clustering techniques (K-menas and hierarchical clustering) are applied to group the tube stations based upon the space-time profiles. Each clustered group represents a unique profile of several tube station areas, which has been validated with the ground truth.

Results:

The comparison between the cluster results and ground truths shows that the stations were allocated into groups reasonably. Stations having strong and specific characteristics could be easily noticed, which is one of the advantages of clustering. For example, the area of stations close to 8 football clubs (stadiums) are all clustered as one group, so are London Heathrow Terminals stations.

Future Work:

As many places may have multiple functions changing with time, the approach developed here could identify locations with similar characteristics on the basis of topic distributions by various time periods, and give more accurate interpretations of the places. It could be helpful to understand and manage places in groups instead of individuals, benefiting for a variety of applications, such as advertising and retailing. We will conduct the work for city-size area with longer period of data in order to test the scalability of the method. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Exploring the Similarities of Influencers in Online Brand Communities
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Tasmina Afroze, Ryerson University, Canada

Recent advances in technology have changed the way people use Internet. Customers use online platforms to socialize with friends and family, interact with new people and to gather latest information from all around the world. People coming together in online platforms give rise to virtual communities. In this paper we highlight the importance of online brand communities and compare community leaders across brands. Understanding the notion of influencers is important for marketers as these leaders help to create a reliable brand community that can resonate with consumers’ desire to build brand loyalty and devotion. Using three different brands of jeans we examined online communities formed within Twitter, using Sysomos. The results showed that there is not much overlap with influencers across brands. However, influencers that are common across brands are very similar in structure and communication strategies. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Social Network Marketing: A Segmentation Approach to Understanding Purchase Intention
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Donna Smith, Ryerson University, Canada
  • Ángel Hernández-García, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
  • Ángel F. Agudo-Peregrina, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Spain
  • Joseph F. Hair, Kennesaw State University, United States
This study investigates the effect of online and offline pre-purchase influences and the role of fashion brand involvement and online brand engagement in predicting purchase intention of products marketed in social media. A 4-construct structural model was developed and validated on a sample of 799 shoppers in North America. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the model. All six hypotheses were supported and fashion brand involvement was identified as a mediator. The analysis incorporated an advanced segmentation technique, Partial Least Squares Prediction Oriented Segmentation, (PLS-POS). Two groups of similar size emerged with differences that are of theoretical and managerial interest. Expansion of the model and future testing in different contexts will help to refine and develop it, providing insights into social media marketing. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

(Re-)Appropriating Instagram for Social Research on Obesity
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Anders Kristian Munk, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Mette Simonsen Abildgaard, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Morten Krogh Petersen, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Andreas Birkbak, Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark

This paper presents three ways of appropriating Instagram for social research through the case of obesity. We draw on the notion obesogenic environment, in which obesity is understood as related to a wide range of cultural, social and physical factors. In a data sprint, digital methods and obesity researchers together explored a dataset of 82,449 instagrams tagged with location from the 5 most and the 5 least overweight local authorities in the UK. These geo-located instagrams from low and high-BMI areas were studied in three distinct approaches to the data; each drawing on interrelated conceptualizations about what is the obesogenic environment, Instagram and cultural analysis. The first appropriation values Instagram as a repository of images that can be coded and counted, while the second asks about the everyday practices of Instagram users. In a third appropriation, we view Instagram as an analytical tool in itself that produces a media-specific version of phenomena such as obesity. Following this third appropriation, we conclude that Instagram, to unfold its potential for social research, must be considered as more than a collection of user-tagged images, but as an analytical context in its own right. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Feasibility Study of Social Media for Public Health Behaviour Changes
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Oluwaseun Ajao, Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom
  • Anna Jurek, Queen's University, United Kingdom
  • Aisling Gough,  Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom
  • Ruth Hunter,  Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom
  • Eimear Barrett,  Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom
  • Gary Mckeown,  Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom
  • Jun Hong,  Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom
  • Frank Kee, Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom

Social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook have been shown to function as effective social sensors that can “feel the pulse” of a community. The aim of the current study is to test the feasibility of designing, implementing and evaluating a bespoke social media-enabled intervention that can be effective for sharing and changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in meaningful ways to promote public health, specifically with regards to prevention of skin cancer. We present the design and implementation details of the campaign followed by summary findings and analysis.

Background

Research has shown that social networks can mediate the transmission of healthy and unhealthy behaviors in populations; either through selection (Centola, 2010, 2011) or influence (Cha et al, 2010) Social Media (SM) platforms have also been shown to transmit moods, feeling and behaviours (Naveed et al, 2011). There are several studies that have shown the effectiveness of social media in terms of behavioural changes in public health interventions such as in physical activity (Cavallo et al, 2012), sexual health (Bull et al, 2012) and risky sexual behaviours (Jones, Baldwin, & Lewis, 2012). To the best of our knowledge our study is one of the first to use Twitter and Facebook social networking platforms to study public health behaviour while raising awareness about skin cancer and its prevention.

Objective

The study aimed to address the following research questions to support the feasibility assessment: (1) Does SM constitute an acceptable means for delivering public health information in the target population? (2) Are people willing to share personal issues (e.g. health behaviours or attitudes) across a SM platform? (3) What type of SM communication would attract the attention of the target population? (4) Are individuals, organizations, celebrities more likely to tweet or re-tweet messages related to the public health campaign? (5) What are the key factors that motivate users to share messages amongst themselves? 

Methods

We began by conducting a survey of 752 households to understand SM usage amongst people in Northern Ireland–the study’s target population. We found Facebook and Twitter to be the two most popular platforms as shown in Table 1. To prepare for the two main phases of the intervention we chose hashtags which broadly differentiated skin cancer awareness from skin surveillance messages respectively. The first Phase which ran from the 1st May – 15th July 2015 contained messages with the #SkinSmartNI, #SkinSavvyNI hashtags. The second Phase ran from 1st August - 30th September 2015 and used the hashtag #KnowYourSkinNI. We chose influencers (including radio, TV weather presenters and celebrities such as music artistes) who we hoped would help diffuse our messages. A coordinated SM event promoting the campaign – a Thunderclap – was designed and then delivered on 1st September 2015 with the aim of creating a trending online meme of the various hashtags used. Figure 1 shows the five message types posted - shocking, story, informative, opportunistic and humorous.

To effectively capture the Twitter data we chose to subscribe to a data provider for the provision of 100% access to the Twitter firehose while Facebook data collected from the analytics dashboard was sufficient for this purpose. However, due to privacy concerns, analysis of Facebook data is limited and beyond the scope of this current paper. JSON data was parsed into CSV and an SQL database for analysis.

Results

In summary, the first phase of the study generated 1,404 interactions comprising tweets, retweets and replies from 366 distinct users while the second phase generated 486 interactions from 217 distinct users. 70% of the messages were sent by users based in the UK. We inferred gender for 65% of the users using “twitterreport” R package. For messages on Twitter we measure message performance in terms of impressions (views) and engagements (clicks). In Table 2 we see the most retweeted messages were “informative” and “humorous” for phases 1 and 2 respectively. We also found no significant difference between promoted and non-promoted messages on both platforms. 

Future work

In our ongoing work we examine diffusion of information based on the message topic and the locations of users who propagate the information. Also, we are assessing how the various message types differ in terms of their diffusion. It would be beneficial for assessing SM enabled public health campaigns if finer granularity were obtained using a location inference algorithm (Ajao, Hong, & Weiru, 2015) which may give more location detail on campaign responses at city-level. In addition it would be interesting if future work could accurately infer more demographic characteristics of responders in platforms such as Facebook especially when response volumes were low. These features are crucial in measuring effectiveness of public health interventions.

References

[1]    Ajao, O., Hong, J. and Liu, W. (2015) A Survey of Location Inference Techniques on Twitter. Journal of Information Science (Big Social Data Special Issue, Dec 2015) Vol. 41(6) 855–864. DOI: 10.1177/0165551515602847

[2]    Bull, S. S., Levine, D. K., Black, S. R., Schmiege, S. J., & Santelli, J. (2012). Social media–delivered sexual health intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial. American journal of preventive medicine, 43(5), 467-474. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.07.022

[3]    Cavallo, D. N., Tate, D. F., Ries, A. V., Brown, J. D., DeVellis, R. F., & Ammerman, A. S. (2012). A social media–based physical activity intervention: a randomized controlled trial. American journal of preventive medicine, 43(5), 527-532. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.07.019.

[4]    Centola, D. (2010) The spread of behavior in an online social network experiment. Science. 329:1194-97. DOI: 10.1126/science.1185231.

[5]    Centola, D. (2011) An experimental study of homophily in the adoption of health behavior. Science; 334:1269-72. DOI: 10.1126/science.1207055

[6]    Cha, M., Haddadi, H., Benevenuto, F. & Gummadi, P.K. (2010), "Measuring User Influence in Twitter: The Million Follower Fallacy.", International Conference on Web & Social Media, vol. 10, no. 10-17, 30.

[7]     Jones, K., Baldwin, K. A., & Lewis, P. R. (2012). The potential influence of a social media intervention on risky sexual behavior and Chlamydia incidence. Journal of community health nursing, 29(2), 106-120. DOI: 10.1080/07370016.2012.670579.

[8]    Naveed, N., Gottron, T., Kunegis, J. & Alhadi, A.C. (2011), "Bad news travel fast: A content-based analysis of interestingness on twitter", Proceedings of the 3rd International Web Science Conference ACM, 8. DOI: 10.1145/2527031.2527052

[9]    Vega Yon, G. (2015). “twitterreport”: Out-of-the-Box Analysis and Reporting Tools for Twitter. R package version 0.15.8.26. http://github.com/gvegayon/twitterreport [Accessed: 14th April, 2016]



Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Older adults mobilize social support via digital networks: Initial findings from the fourth East York study
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Anabel Quan-Haase, University of Western Ontario, Canada
  • Barry Wellman, University of Toronto, Canada
  • Kim Martin, UWO, Canada
  • Christian Beermann, University of Toronto, Canada
  • Meghan Miller, University of Western Ontario, Canada

Building on three previous studies of East York, we employ detailed qualitative analyses to examine how senior residents of this Toronto area find social support via the internet, their phones, and in-person. Focusing on residents who are 65+, as they comprise nearly half of our sample, we can see that the analytic categories employed in the second East York study remain useful despite advances in digital media. Through this we are able to determine that social support is widely available, with these older adults using the internet, particularly email and Facebook, as well as their phones, and in-person contacts to mobilize their social networks. Many of our participants rely heavily on the assistance of relatives and some on friends for technical support, they continue to learn how to best access their social support via digital networks. 

Background:

Many researchers and pundits have claimed that social life has eroded, pointing to different prime causes including industrialization, capitalism, socialism, urbanization, colonialism, and bureaucratization. Recently, some have blamed technology, especially the diffusion of trains, cars, telephones, radios, televisions from diminishing involvement in formally organized groups of parents, veterans, social clubs, and the like (Putnam, 2000), while others have pointed to a supposed lack of authentic connections engendered by digital media (Turkle, 2011; Livingstone, 2008). At the center of this debate is the assumption that ties sustained via computer-mediated communication do not support the mobilization of social support as well as in-person ties (Turkle, 2011; Livingston, 2008). Even if individuals are more connected, it is argued that this increase in ties does not translate into greater networks of social support. Contrary to these claims, our evidence shows that while things are not what they used to be, they have not fallen apart either and social support is exchanged among networks of older Torontonians both on and offline. 

Objective:

Much work in the area of social capital suggests that resources can indeed flow through social media such as Facebook (Ellison, Steinfield, & Lampe, 2007) and Twitter (Quan-Haase, Martin, & McCay-Peet, 2015). However, much of this work has collected data from university students and young adults, who have grown up with the internet and mobile devices, the so-called "digital natives" (Prensky, 2001). This study by contrast aims to understand how social support is mobilized within the context of older Canadians’ everyday lives by examining what types of social support older residents of East York exchange with their networks, from whom they receive social support, as well as whom they supply with the same, and finally what role social media plays in facilitating or hindering the mobilization of social support in these networks? 

Methods:

The present study represents the fourth wave of data collection that has taken place in East York since 1968 (Coates, Moyer, & Wellman, 1969; Wellman, 1979; Wellman & Wortley, 1990; Wellman et al. 2006) , taking place from November, 2012 to June 2013. The sample frame consisted of 2,321 residents , of which 304 were randomly contacted and 101 agreed to participate. Of these, 41 respondents ranged from 65 to 93 years of age and have been included in this analysis. Employing these participants we investigated the types of social support exchanged, ranging from companionship and the exchange of small and large services, to emotional and financial aid. 

Results:

Residents of East York continue to exchange the same types of social support witnessed in previous waves of data collection ranging from emotional aid, small services, large services, and companionship (Wellman, 1979; Wellman & Wortley, 1989; Wellman & Wortley, 1990; Wellman et al. 2006). In contrast, major financial aid was hardly discussed by participants as a type of social support exchanged. Uniquely, we did find that communication is a type of social support that has not been captured in previous typologies and was central to our study, suggesting that for this population of older residents, communication via mobile phones, email, and social media is a kind of social support that is received and exchanged.
As long as the older residents of East York surveyed possessed the necessary skills and means to utilize information and communications technologies (ICTs), they employed them to further connect with their social networks near and far to mobilize social support, maintain ties, plan face-to-face activities, ask for expertise, or engage in casual conversation. Thus ICTs are adding another layer to the mobilization of social support within personal social networks, and therefore potentially increasing happiness and situational satisfaction.

At the same time, this age group shows great appreciation for face-to-face exchanges and consider communication via email and social media an add-on, instead of a substitute. Here email was the most prominent medium employed for communication, while using Facebook was also common, even if respondents did not actively post their opinions online but followed and interacted with friends and family.

For others it brings frustration and feelings of segregation. These respondents often felt a lack of confidence with technology and their low digital skills block them from taking full advantages of the possibilities afforded by these digital technologies. Thus, the older residents of East York could benefit from further support in learning how to make digital media work for them, for their needs. 

Future Work:

Respondents considered computer-mediated communication (CMC) to be a form of social support, suggesting that increases in digital communication also increase the exchange of overall social support. Future work can further shed light on ICT use by seniors and their potential reliance on both traditional sources of social support as well as their adoption of social media and social networking platforms. Simultaneously, investigations of the overall social network makeup of all networks within the sample using similar methods will enable researchers to suggest methods to enhance digital literacy, change the features of particular media platforms, and understand the motivations that propel usage by the elderly so as to enable their usage of potential affordances. Likewise an investigation of individual views of privacy, both interpersonal and institutional, alongside further study of technology usage within the sample on the whole may uncover peculiarities of the senior population not yet revealed. 

References:

Coates, D. B., Moyer, S., & Wellman, B. (1969). Yorklea study: Symptoms, problems and life events. Canadian Journal of Public Health 60(12), 471-481.

Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook “Friends:” Social capital and college students’ use of online social setwork sites. Journal of Computer- Mediated Communication, 12(4), 1143−1168.

Livingstone, S. (2008). Taking risky opportunities in youthful content creation: Teenagers' use of social networking sites for intimacy, privacy and self-expression. New Media and Society 10(3), 393-411.

Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On the Horizon 9(5). http://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky - Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants - Part1.pdf

Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of american community. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Quan-Haase, A., Martin, K., & McCay-Peet, L. (2015). Networks of digital humanities scholars: The informational and social uses and gratifications of twitter. Big Data & Society 2(1). http://arxiv.org/abs/1507.02994

Turkle, S. (2011). Alone together. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Wellman, B. (1979). The community question: The intimate networks of East Yorkers. American Journal of Sociology 84(5), 1201-1231.

Wellman, B. & Wortley, S. (1990). Different strokes from different folks: Community ties and social support. American Journal of Sociology 96(3), 558-588.

Wellman, B., & Wortley, S. (1989). Brothers’ keepers: Situating kinship relations in broader networks of social support. Sociological Perspectives, 32(3), 273-306. Wellman, B., Hogan, B., Berg, K., Boase, J., Carrasco, J. A., Côté, R., Kayahara, J., Kennedy, T. L. M., & Tran, P. (2006). Connected lives: The project. In P. Purcell (Ed.), Networked neighborhoods: The online community in context (pp. 157-211). Guildford, UK: Springer. 

 


Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Quantifying Self-Reported Adverse Drug Events on Twitter: Signal and Topic Analysis
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Vassilis Plachouras, Thomson Reuters, United Kingdom
  • Jochen Leidner, Thomson Reuters, United Kingdom
  • Andrew Garrow, Thomson Reuters, United Kingdom

A well-functioning ecosystem of drug suppliers includes responsive regulators and pharmaceutical companies when a sold drug exhibits side effects. Existing systems for monitoring adverse drug events such as the Federal Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) in the US have shown limited effectiveness due to the lack of incentives on the side of healthcare professionals and patients. While social media present opportunities to mine adverse events in near real-time, there are still important questions to be answered in order to understand their impact on pharmacovigilance. First, it is not known how many social media posts occur per day on platforms like Twitter, i.e. whether there is "enough signal" for a post-market pharmacovigilance program based on Twitter mining. Second, it is not known what other topics are discussed by users in posts mentioning pharmaceutical drugs.

In this paper, we outline how social media can be used as a human sensor for drug use monitoring. We introduce a large-scale, near real-time system for computational pharmacovigilance, and use our system to estimate the order of magnitude of the volume of daily self-reported pharmaceutical drug side effect tweets. The processing pipeline comprises a set of cascaded filters followed by a supervised machine learning classifier. The cascaded filters quickly reduce the volume to a manageable sub-stream, from which a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classifier identifies adverse events based on a rich set of features taking into account surface-textual properties as well as domain knowledge about drugs, side effects and the Twitter medium. Using a dataset of 10,000 manually annotated tweets, a SVM classifier achieves F1=60.4% and AUC=0.894. 

The yield of the classifier for a drug universe comprising 2,600 keywords is 721 tweets per day. We also investigate what other topics are discussed in the posts mentioning pharmaceutical drugs. We conclude by suggesting an ecosystem where regulators and pharma companies utillize social media to obtain feedback about consequences of pharmaceutical drug use. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Digital humanitarians: creating and connecting ‘online crisis communities’ in the aftermath of a humanitarian disaster.
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Femke Mulder, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • Julie Ferguson, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands

Background
 
Citizen and volunteer networks play an important role in the aftermath of humanitarian crises, particularly in the Global South where formal authorities are not always able to provide an adequate response. Volunteer-driven action groups increasingly use social media-based platforms to enable stakeholders to access, share and broadcast crisis- relevant information. Such platforms are often mobilized by dispersed, relatively well- educated, digitally-literate citizens in an attempt to influence and monitor ongoing relief efforts and raise awareness of the plight of affected communities (Roberts, 2011). These ‘digital humanitarians’ (Meier, 2015) are members of the global digital elite who dedicate themselves to humanitarian causes and seek to champion the interests and needs of local citizens affected by disaster. To date, little research has been carried out into the role of these ‘digital elites’ in shaping crisis communities, to what extent they represent the needs of affected local citizens, and whether/how they succeed in communicating – and transferring - these needs to other networks, particularly networks of formal humanitarian responders (Boersma et al., 2014). 

Objective

This study compares social-media enabled crisis communications in the aftermath of the Haiti (2010) and Nepal (2015) earthquakes, toward two complementary goals. First, we explore how digital elites attempt to ‘program’ a social network (Castells, 2009: 45), that is, how they attempt to create online crisis communities with shared identities, shared goals and shared tasks - out of stakeholders with heterogeneous interests and agendas. An important focus here are the in- and exclusions of the voices of different groups of affected citizens on the ground. Second, we analyse how digital elites use social media in an attempt to get government bodies or humanitarian agencies to adopt the goals and tasks of ‘their’ online crisis community. That is, we examine how objectives are ‘switched’ from one social network to another (ibid.) In so doing, we explain how digital elites use social media in their (potential) role as social network ‘programmers’ and ‘switchers’. 

Methods

We analyze the online crisis communities using a mixed-methods research design, combining ethnographic methods (Hine, 2008; Tony, 1979) with social network and semantic content analyses (Williams and Shepherd, 2015) of social media data. We contextualize our findings using the historical method. 

Results

Our research to date indicates that in both Haiti and Nepal digital elites played a leading role in ‘programming’ and attempts at ‘switching’, with elites in the latter facilitating more ‘bottom-up’ involvement.

Future Work

We carried out fieldwork in Nepal in the immediate aftermath of the 2015 earthquakes and will follow this up with additional fieldwork in March 2016. Furthermore, we will analyse a dataset of online communications between ‘digital humanitarians’ (Meier, 2015) who volunteered their skills and time to create interactive online maps, in an attempt to channel the needs and problems of local affected citizens. 

References
 

Boersma, K., Ferguson, J., Groenewegen, P., and Wolbers, J. (2014) Beyond the Myth of Control: Toward Network Switching in Disaster Management. In: Proceedings of the 11th International ISCRAM Conference (pp. 125-130).

Castells M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. Hine, C. (2008). Virtual Ethnography: Modes, Varieties, Affordances. The SAGE Handbook

of Online Research Methods, 257-270. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Meier, P. (2015). Digital humanitarians. How Big Data Is Changing the Face of

Humanitarian Response. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Roberts, N.C. (2011). Beyond Smokestacks and Silos: Open-Source, Web-Enabled Coordination in Organizations and Networks, Public Administration Review, 71(5): 677- 693.

Tony, W. I. (1979). Anthropology and Disaster Research. Disasters, 3(1): 43–52.

Williams, T. A., and Shepherd, D. A. (2015). Mixed Method Social Network Analysis: Combining Inductive Concept Development, Content Analysis, and Secondary Data for Quantitative Analysis. Organizational Research Methods (online in advance): 1-31. DOI: 10.1177/1094428115610807 

 


Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:35
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Grieving in the 21st Century: Social media’s role in facilitating supportive exchanges following community- level traumatic events
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Kimberly Glasgow, JHU/APL, United States
  • Jessica Vitak, University of Maryland, United States
  • Clay Fink, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, United States

In the aftermath of a traumatic mass casualty event, a community’s resources are strained, while its needs for tangible, emotional, and informational support are elevated. Social media may serve to bridge the distance between the locally affected community and those outside who are willing to offer support. This exploratory study uses Twitter as a lens for examining gratitude for support in the aftermath of disaster. We examine how social media may provide new opportunities for support to be exchanged and networks to be formed in the aftermath of a traumatic event. By analyzing tweets originating from Newtown, CT after the school shooting, we identify and describe six categories of support exchanged through Twitter, including two categories (symbolic and role-based) that have not been extensively discussed in the social support literature – but are valued by the community. Each type of support network shows distinct structural characteristics and temporal variance. 

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:35
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Tracing Networks of Influence: Digital Innovations in the Crisis Response to the 2015 Nepal Earthquakes
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Heather McIntosh, Canada's International Development Research Centre / The University of Ottawa

The 2015 Nepal earthquakes (NE) began with a 7.8 magnitude earthquake, which hit the nation’s capital, Kathmandu, and its surrounding areas on April 25, 2015. On May 12, 2015 a second major earthquake (of a 7.3 magnitude) struck to the northeast of Kathmandu, affecting various areas in Nepal and regions in Southern China. In the following weeks, continued aftershocks occurred throughout Nepal with short intervals separating them. The earthquakes killed more than 8,000 people, injured more than 23,000, and it is currently estimated that 2.8 million people require humanitarian assistance as a result of being harmed or displaced because of the disaster (Groupe Speciale Mobile Association, 2015). The 2015 NE attracted global attention, and aid organizations from around the world mobilized to help. Yet, given that Nepal is a developing and largely rural country, its ability to respond to and manage such a large-scale crisis was limited. Despite such challenges, some indicate that ICTs were used to facilitate crisis management and response (Groupe Speciale Mobile Association, 2015). Being that ICTs continue to play an increasingly important role in disasters (Burns, 2015), this study seeks to better understand the role of ICTs in the 2015 NE crisis management to potentially inform future uses of ICTs in similar scenarios.

This study strives to contribute to an emerging field of research on the use of ICTs in crisis scenarios through a new case study on the 2015 NE. To do so, this study will gather information from those who leveraged ICTs to facilitate crisis management and response to understand the role of these tools in this specific case. The study is guided by the following research questions:

  1. How and in what circumstances can ICTs play an effective role in improving disaster response?

a)     How and by whom were ICTs used in the crisis management and response to the 2015 NE?

b)     How did these uses influence the delivery of aid and humanitarian support in the 2015 NE?

c)     What challenges and/or risks were involved in the use of ICTs in the 2015 NE crisis response?

d)     What were the perceived benefits of the use of ICTs in the 2016 NE crisis response?

e)     What are the implications of access to and use of ICTs in the 2015 NE crisis response related to gender?
i. How do gender norms impact a woman’s ability to access and use ICTs in Nepal?
ii. How did gender norms with regards to women’s ability to access and use ICTs in Nepal impact their abilities during the 2015 NE crisis response?

 

To explore the role of ICTs in the 2015 NE, this study will use a qualitative single-case study research design (e.g., Stake, 1995; Yin, 2014). The case study used for this research will be descriptive in nature. This study will use the process-tracing method (George & Bennett, 2005) to identify the ways in which ICTs influenced crisis management and response in the 2015 NE. The process-tracing method seeks to identify the “intervening casual process—the causal chain and causal mechanisms—between an independent variable (or variables) and the outcomes of the dependent variable” (Ibid, p. 206). This method is defined as the systematic examination of diagnostic evidence selected and analyzed in light of research questions” posed by the investigator (Collier, 2011, p. 823). This method can contribute decisively to social phenomena and evaluating the unfolding of events (Checkel, 2008). It can be applied to research into ICTs and their influences on various social phenomena and activities; therefore, this type of analysis is particularly useful in exploring the influence of ICTs on response to the 2015 NE. This study will use abductive reasoning, as the study will begin with an incomplete set of observations and will seek to proceed to the likeliest possible explanation for the set (Walton, 2005).

The data collection method for this study will be qualitative semi-structured interviews with actors involved in facilitating crisis response and management through the use of ICTs. This may include actors from non-governmental organizations (NGOs), government, and grassroots organizations/efforts. Semi-structured interviews are designed to explore issues in detail with the interviewee, using probes, prompts, and flexible questioning styles (Henn, Weinstein & Foard, 2006). This data collection method is selected for this study because it allows the principal investigator (PI) to pre-design questions guided by the goals of the study, but it will also allow respondents to provide information on their unique accounts and experiences.

A qualitative content analysis of the interview transcripts will be conducted. Content analysis is a “careful, detailed, systematic examination and interpretation of a particular body of material in an effort to identify patterns, themes, biases, and meanings” (Berg, 2007, p. 248). This form of analysis is used in various disciplines for a multitude of purposes; it is mainly a coding operation and data interpreting process (e.g., Mayring, 2004; Schreier, 2012). The analysis will examine both manifest and latent content found in the data to understand the surface structure of the messages as well as their deep structural meanings (Berg, 2007). Thus, the study will examine exactly what the narratives found in the text may seek to do or mean based on the ways different ideas and concepts are expressed through the language of the text (Berg, 2011). This will be achieved through coding of themes and sub-themes expressed in the transcripts (Saldaña, 2015).

Given the case study research design, the study uses purposive and snowball sampling techniques, which are both nonprobability sampling strategies.

It is hoped that the report may be particularly useful to those who work at NGOs and government organizations involved in the management of and response to crises and disasters. This research will also seek to contribute to knowledge pertaining to the ways in which ICTs can be leveraged to improve crisis response and management.

References

Berg, Bruce L. (2007). An introduction to content analysis. In Mahmoud Eid and Martine Legacé (Eds.), Communication research methods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches (pp. 247-284). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Berg, Bruce L. (2011). An introduction to content analysis. In Mahmoud Eid (Ed.), Research methods in communication (pp. 209-236). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Burns, Ryan. (2015). Rethinking big data in digital humanitarianism: Practices, epistemologies, and social relations. GeoJournal, 80(4), 477-490.

Checkel, Jeffrey T. (2008). Process tracing. In Audie Klotz and Deepa Prakash (Eds.), Qualitative methods in international relations (pp. 114-127). London: Palgrave McMillian UK.

Collier, David. (2011). Understanding process tracing. Political Science and Politics, 44(4), 823-830.

George, Alexander L. & Bennet, Andrew. (2005). Case studies and theory development in the social sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Groupe Speciale Mobile Association. (2015). Disaster response – Nepal earthquake response and recovery overview. Retrieved January 6, 2016, from http://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/programme/disaster-response/disaster-response-nepal-earthquake-response-and-recovery-overview/.

Henn, Matt, Weinstein, Mark & Foard, Nick. (2006). A short introduction to social research. London: Sage.

Mayring, Phillip. (2004). Qualitative content analysis. In Uwe Flick, Ernst von Kardoff, and Ines Steinke (Eds.), A companion to qualitative research (pp. 266-269). London: Sage.

Saldaña, Johnny. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles: Sage.

Schreier, Margrit. (2012). Qualitative content analysis in practice. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Stake, Robert E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Walton, Douglas. (2005). Abductive reasoning. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press

Yin, Robert. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. 


Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:35
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

14:46

Mapping Resistance in the Digital Public Sphere: Counter-Surveillance on Social Media
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Contributor: Wil Chivers, WISERD, Cardiff University, United Kingdom

Background: 

New networked forms of ordering challenge how we conceive of democracy, political participation and policy-making. Social media are but one facet of how networked forms of communication and organisation are increasingly important and influential in our societies. Platforms such as Twitter are a popular and increasingly vital social space for civil society organisations to promote campaigns and mobilise members. Equally they enable individuals to connect with these groups and one another and voice their own opinions on social issues. This ‘new public sphere’ (Castells 2008), thus offers enormous potential for interaction between citizens and public, private and third sector organisations but, consequently, challenges our traditional understanding of collective action. 

This paper reports on on-going empirical research examining patterns of communication and organisation on social media. Specifically, it explores these patterns in the context of resistance to proposed reforms to UK surveillance legislation (the Investigatory Powers Bill). Drawing on data gathered from Twitter, the paper employs a social network analysis approach to identifying key participants to the online debate about surveillance reform and examines the unique structural features of this conversation. The paper concludes by offering critical reflection on the implications of these patterns for understanding collective and ‘connective’ (Bennett and Segerberg 2012) action. 

Objective: 

There are three overarching objectives of this project: first, to examine how resistance to surveillance happens on social media; second, to theorise the impact of social media on civil society organisations and collective action more broadly, and; third, to begin developing a methodological toolkit for researching ‘digital civil society’. 

Methods: 

The data for this project were collected and analysed using NodeXL. Twitter data were retrieved at different intervals by searching for the hashtag ‘#InvestigatoryPowersBill’. The data were subject to social network analysis techniques and preliminary content analysis of tweets has also been carried out. 

Results:

 The results for this project are currently undergoing analysis. Early findings indicate that the conversation about the Investigatory Powers Bill on Twitter has a distinct structure and the analysis seeks to relate to this to the broader social context of resistance to surveillance. There are also indications, drawn from parallels with other similar work being conducted by the researcher, that similar debates on Twitter (i.e. resistance to legislative reform in the UK from civil society actors and connected individuals) generate conversational patterns that both resemble but differ in significant ways from the contours of the debate concerning surveillance reform. 

Future Work:

 This project seeks to contribute to on-going research as part of the Wales Institute for Social & Economic Research, Data & Methods (WISERD) Civil Society programme. 

References: 

Bennett, W. L. and Segerberg, A. (2012). The Logic of Connective Action. Information, Communication and Society, 15 (5), 739-768 
Castells, M. (2008). The New Public Sphere: Global Civil Society, Communication Networks and Global Governance. ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616 (1), 78-93  

Tuesday July 12, 2016 14:46 - 16:36
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

16:15

Break
Tuesday July 12, 2016 16:15 - 16:30
TBA

16:30

Poster Reception
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Weston Atrium, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Posters:
  1. Allison Levin: "Fan Engagement on Twitter: The Role of Influencers in Leading the Conversation"
  2. Anatoliy Gruzd, Jenna Jacobson, Elizabeth Dubois, Nick Lin: “Challenges and Opportunities of Doing Research with Social Media Data”
  3. Anika Batenburg and Jos Bartels: "Keeping Up Online Appearances: How Self-Disclosure on Facebook Affects Perceived Reputation Among Colleagues"
  4. Ansgar Koene and Andrew Moffat: "Public Outreach Evaluation Tool (POET): defining the reach of social media activities"
  5. Bahareh Heravi, Arkadiusz Stasiewicz and Pablo Torres-Tramon: "RTE News 360"
  6. Bahareh R. Heravi, Ihab Salawdeh and Natalie Harrower: "The Social Repository of Ireland"
  7. Caroline Halcrow: "Testing a method of measuring online/offline community (O/OC) using the model SPENCE"
  8. Chen-Ta Sung: "Mediating Guanxi: Practices of Friendship Managements through Polymedia in Contemporary Taiwan"
  9. Chih-Ping Chang and Ying-Jun Lin: "A journey of (re)understanding the “228 Incident” on Facebook: The intersection of social media and the construction of personal knowledge production"
  10. Chris Allen, Ivaylo Vassilev, Anne Kennedy and Anne Rogers: "Long-Term Condition Self-Management Support in Online Communities: A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Papers"
  11. Claudine Bonneau and Viviane Sergi: "Making Backstage Work Visible on Twitter: Towards a New Way of Working"
  12. Cristina Rosales Sanchez: "Twitter data as indicator of Active Citizenship"
  13. Daiji Hario and Kenji Yoshimi: "Finding the man who is profitable or not : An algorithm to predict online rating behavior"
  14. Emily Eyles, Frauke Zeller, David Harris Smith, John Eyles, Debora Silva de Jesus, Daven Bigelow and Lauren Jay Dwyer: "Virtual Hamilton: A Virtual, Interactive Urban Planning Environment Using macGRID"
  15. Esther Brainin and Efrat Neter: "Offline gender roles replayed in online health behavior among older adults in Israel"
  16. Jennifer Gerson, Anke Plagnol and Philip Corr: "Subjective well-being and social media use: Do personality traits moderate the impact of social comparison on Facebook?"
  17. Jiang-Liang Hou and Chia-Lin Han: "Visualization Of Opinion Distributions With Respect To User Profiles"
  18. Jill Hopke and Luis Hestres: "Urgency to act on climate: Blurring boundaries of journalism and advocacy on Twitter during #COP21"
  19. ---------
  20. Kenji Yoshimi and Daiji Hario: "What is the effective use of social media in sports ? : A case study of Japanese professional football teams"
  21. Kristen Mapes: "Limits of Expression(s): Methodological Problems in Archiving Twitter Data"
  22. Marc Esteve Del Valle, Anatoliy Gruzd, Caroline Haythornthwaite, Sarah Gilbert, Drew Paulin: “Social Media Use in Teaching: Faculty Use in Higher Education ”
  23. Ming-Hsiang Tsou, Chin-Te Jung, Christopher Allen, Jiue-An Yang, Su Han, Brian Spitzberg and Jessica Dozier: "Geo-targeted Event Observation (GEO) Viewer for Situation Awareness with Advanced Mapping and Visualization Functions"
  24. Oliver Ellis: "Political Speech and Audience Response in the Age of Social Media"
  25. Patrick McHugh: "Firm Provenance and Strategic Action in Equity Crowdfunding"
  26. Priya Nambisan: "User experience in Social Media: Impact on Mental health"
  27. Richard Hamshaw: "A frame analysis utilising media and social media sources: The 100 chefs incident"
  28. Satish Nambisan: "Digital Entrepreneurship and Social Media: A Demand-side Approach"
  29. Shih-Yun Chen: "Opinion Leaders or Opinion Followers: the Changing Leaderships in Social Networks"
  30. Shuzhe Yang and Anabel Quan-Haase: "People’s sentiment with regard to the right to be forgotten"
  31. Simon Hudson: "Taking social media listening to a new level: a case study"
  32. Sofia Rüdiger and Daria Dayter: "Online reports of seduction: When your informants don't trust you"
  33. Zrinka Peharec: "A quest for one “self”"
  34. Christopher Wheldon, Jiang Bian and Richard Moser: "Surveillance of HPV-related vaccination discourse on Twitter in the United States: A case study of Kansas and Rhode Island"

Tuesday July 12, 2016 16:30 - 19:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Weston Atrium Goldsmiths University, Building 2

18:45

Dinner (self-organized)
Tuesday July 12, 2016 18:45 - 20:00
TBA
 
Wednesday, July 13
 

08:30

Registration and Coffee Reception
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Weston Atrium, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Join us for morning coffee and fresh pastries!

Wednesday July 13, 2016 08:30 - 09:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Weston Atrium Goldsmiths University, Building 2

09:00

Award Ceremony & Keynote: Helen Kennedy
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Helen Kennedy
Professor of Digital Society, University of Sheffield

Desiring numbers: when social media data are ordinary  


Abstract

As social media data mining becomes more and more ordinary, as we post, our posts get mined and this process gets repeated, new data relations emerge. These new data relations are characterised by a widespread desire for numbers. To talk about a desire for numbers, rather than a trust in numbers (Porter 1995), makes it possible to account for some of the contradictions that accompany the becoming-ordinary of social media data, such as hunger for and evangelism about but also frustration in and criticism of data and data mining. This widespread desire for numbers brings with it some troubling consequences: it becomes increasingly difficult to discuss problems with social media data mining despite recognition of them amongst data miners, and it has effects of all kinds on work and workers. Despite these problems, and because of the ubiquity of data and data mining, the possibility of doing good with data (and with data mining) endures. Together, these and other contradictory tendencies – the persistence of some old concerns; the emergence of new ones; data power and challenges to it – constitute the new data relations that emerge when social media data are ordinary. In this presentation, I illustrate this argument by drawing on action research with public sector organisations, interviews with commercial social media insights companies and their clients, focus groups with social media users and other research.

 

BIO

Helen Kennedy is Professor of Digital Society at the University of Sheffield. She has recently been researching what happens when social media data mining becomes widespread – this research will be published as a monograph entitled Post, Mine, Repeat: social media data mining becomes ordinary (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016, was funded by an AHRC Fellowship). Current research includes Seeing Data (www.seeingdata.org), which explores how non-experts relate to data visualisations (funded by an AHRC Digital Transformation large grant). Previous research has traversed digital media landscapes, covering topics including: homepages, identity and representation; race, class, gender inequality; learning disability and web accessibility; and web design and other creative digital work. She is currently interested in critical approaches to big data and data visualisation, how to make data more accessible to ordinary citizens, and whether data matter to people.


Wednesday July 13, 2016 09:00 - 10:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:30

Coffee Break
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Weston Atrium, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:30 - 10:45
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Weston Atrium Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:45

Panel 4D: Social Media and Social Futures
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Presenters

  • Rebecca Coleman, Goldsmiths, @rcecoleman
  • Karen Gregory, Edinburgh University, @claudiakincaid
  • William Housley, Cardiff University, @ProfWilHousley
  • Helena Webb, University of Oxford, @EthicsWildfire

Objectives
: Social media is conventionally located within a commercial narrative that theorises an array of emerging ‘disruptive technologies’ that includes big data, additive manufacture and robotics. These and related technologies are underpinned by computational developments that are networked, distributed, digital and data driven. It has been argued that these technologies not only disrupt markets; but also wider social and economic relations and organization. These include social institutions such as the family, work, health care delivery, education, relationships and the ‘self’. Social media is one of the first waves of digital disruptive technologies whose mass global take-up via multiple platforms is still being assessed and understood, as a social force in it’s own right. Standardly, ‘social media as data’ has provided a plethora of studies and projects that have examined the big and broad social data opportunities provided by the social media for understanding populations on the move ‘in real time’. In some cases this has led certain commentators to enthusiastically claim that the analysis of social media as data offers opportunities for prediction and the forecasting of behavior at the population level although this rhetoric is not without it’s skeptics and critics. Furthermore, these methodological opportunities and oracular imaginaries are being accompanied by an ‘ontological velocity’ generated by the social and economic implications of social media as data, practice and a globalizing networked communicative force that is shaping being and becoming in the digital age. A key issue here is the relationship between social media, society, time and the ‘future making’ capacities and affordances of these and allied technologies.

Yet little work has been carried out on the temporal ramifications of social media (and other disruptive technologies) in relation to emerging digital timescapes. To this extent the study of the relationship between social media and society remains under conceptualized especially in relation to our understanding of late modernity at the beginning of the 21st century. The relationship between social media and the social generation of risk, it’s contributions to new digital timescapes and the trajectory of the self and identity alongside empirical concerns is sociological work in waiting. In addition to this social media as a mass networked ‘digital agora’ can also be understood as a reflexive space in and through which different agents and actors are imagining the future in a variety of ways.

Significance: This panel would address a number of the themes concerning social media impact on society e.g. private self/public self, the sharing/attention economy, virtality & memes, political mobilization and engagement. It would do so in a synthetic way, building upon discussion of a number of substantive topics in order to frame an important broader discussion about the relationship between social media and social futures. 
Why a Panel? The panel format allows our broad topic to be approached through a number of individual contributions, leading to a broader conversation through engagement between the speakers and engagement with the audience. Each speaker will give a short provocative talk and there will be an opportunity for questions from the audience. At the end of these talks, the speakers will be invited to briefly respond to each other before we open up for a general discussion with the audience. 

Logistics: Mark Carrigan (@mark_carrigan, University of Warwick) will chair the session, introducing each speaker and facilitating discussion. Each speaker will give a brief talk. 

Interactivity: As well as the aforementioned opportunity for discussion within the session, allowing time for the Q&A with each individual speaker but also to participate in synthesising the session contents as a whole, we intend that the contents of the session will be the basis for an extended conversation leading beyond the conference itself. These panel will provide the basis for a special issue of the online magazine Discover Society, building on a similar initiative (the politics of data) organised by Mark Carrigan in the same publication. Each speaker will submit an article to Discover Society and audience members will be invited to submit to the special issue, as well as to the contents of a  general call for articles that will be circulated within a month of the event. 

Conclusions: Participants in the session will have a clearer understanding of the relationship between social media and social futures. They will have been invited to contributing to fleshing out this relation, both through participation in the session itself and in the ensuing special issue of Discover Society. In doing so, we intend that the session starts a broad conversation in which we might ‘join the dots’ of discrete areas of transformation in order to better understand how social media is both shaped by and is shaping social futures. 

Brief Biography of Each Presenter
  • Rebecca Coleman is senior lecturer in the Department of Sociology at Goldsmiths. Her research interests include images and visual/sensory culture; bodies and materiality; surfaces; temporality and the future; affect; inventive methodologies; feminist, cultural and social theory  
  • Karen Gregory is a lecturer in digital sociology at the University of Edinburgh, and co-editor of the forthcoming Digital Sociologies. Her research focuses on the experience of working online and the embodied nature of digital labor. She is currently at work on a project that explores the possibilities for solidarity in a digital economy.
  • William Housley, is a sociologist, based at the Cardiff University School of Social Sciences, who works across a number of research areas that include language and interaction, social media, the social aspects of disruptive technologies and the emerging contours of digital society, economy and culture. Professor Housley was a co-founder of COSMOS and is currently working on a number of ESRC funded projects that relate to digital society and research; he co-convenes the Digital Sociology Research Group at Cardiff University, is co-editor of Qualitative Research (SAGE) and serves on the editorial board of Big Data and Society (SAGE).
  • Helena Webb is a sociologist based in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Oxford. She is a member of the ongoing Digital Wildfire research project, which investigates the spread of provocative content on social media and opportunities for the responsible governance of digital social spaces.

Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:45 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:45

Session 4A: Privacy: Disclosure, Risk & Benefit
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Moderators
Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:45 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:45

Session 4B: Facebook
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Moderators
avatar for Stefanie Haustein

Stefanie Haustein

Postdoctoral Researcher, University of Montreal
I am a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Montreal (Canada) and a visiting lecturer at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf (Germany). | My work currently focuses on social media in scholarly communication and making sense of so-called "altmetrics" and is supported by a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. | I hold a Master’s degree in history, American linguistics and literature and information science and a PhD in... Read More →

Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:45 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:45

Session 4C: Politics I: Politicians & Civic Engagement
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Moderators
avatar for Ravi Vatrapu

Ravi Vatrapu

Professor, Copenhagen Business School

Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:45 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:46

Commercial Social Media and the Academic Library: A Critical Examination of the Impact on Patron Privacy
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Contributor: Jeff Lilburn, Mount Allison University, Canada

Background:

Recent scholarship in Library and Information Studies (LIS) reveals that commercial social media services such as Facebook and Twitter are used by a vast majority of university libraries in the United States, Canada and elsewhere (for example, Boateng and Liu 2014).  To date, few studies have considered critically the implications of widespread library adoption of social media tools and services.  In particular, the impact that social media use by libraries may have on patron privacy remains underexplored.  Michael Zimmer (2013), for example, has shown that only a small minority of articles on social media and libraries address privacy in a meaningful way.  Zimmer also identifies what he describes as a “policy vacuum” on matters relating to patron privacy and library use of social media tools.  More recently, Sarah Shik Lamdan (2015) has argued that librarians should play a lead role in advocating for social media terms of service that value users’ privacy rights.

Objective:

This paper critically examines privacy implications of commercial social media from the perspective of the academic library.  Libraries have a long tradition of protecting patron privacy.  Privacy is a core library value that informs and underpins much of the work of librarians, including the protection and promotion of intellectual freedom.  The paper investigates whether library adoption of commercial social media signals acceptance of the idea that erosion of patron privacy is a reasonable and unavoidable tradeoff for the benefits of social media.  It also considers how library use of alternatives to commercial social media platforms may better enable libraries to maintain their role as defenders of patron privacy.  

Methods:

Building on Christian Fuchs’ analysis of the political economy of social media and his idea of privacy as a “collective right of dominated and exploited groups that need to be protected from corporate domination” (2014), this paper situates library practices surrounding social media within contemporary sociopolitical contexts and power relations.  It also considers scholarly work on privacy and surveillance from related disciplines, including work examining the corporate control of privacy and the role of surveillance as technology of governance. 

Results:

Revelations about expansive government agency surveillance and corporate complicity in this surveillance point to a continuing need for the library’s role as defender of patron privacy.  Similarly, as sites of teaching and learning, libraries can help foster understanding of the relationship between privacy and autonomy and of the important role these play in democratic citizenship.  This paper concludes that library use of commercial social media, in the absence of well-developed policy and terms of service that respect user privacy, can conflict with and undermine library and librarian efforts to contest threats to privacy both within and outside the library.

Future Work:

Further research is needed to assess critically the impact that social media may have on the longstanding role of libraries as defenders of patron privacy.  In particular, additional research is needed to examine library use and promotion of alternatives to commercial social media platforms.

References Cited in the Abstract:

Boateng, F., & Liu, Y. Q. (2014).  Web 2.0 applications' usage and trends in top US academic libraries.  Library Hi Tech, 32(1), 120-138.  

Fuchs, C. (2014).  Social Media: A Critical Introduction.  Los Angeles, Sage. 

Lamdan, S. S. (2015).  Social Media Privacy: A Rallying Cry to Librarians.  Library Quarterly, 85(3), 261-277.

Zimmer, M. (2013).  Assessing the Treatment of Patron Privacy in Library 2.0 Literature.  Information Technology & Libraries, 32(2), 29-41.



Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:46 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:46

Rethinking Social Media Information Disclosure: An Application of Users and Gratifications Theory
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Kathryn Waite,Heriot Watt University
  • Gary Hunter, Illinois State University
  • Ian Grant, Strathclyde University

Background:

Digital privacy research suggests that individuals view personal information disclosure negatively (Ellison et al 2011). However, social media users repeatedly share personal information with individuals and commercial organisations (Kang et al 2014). Indeed, consumer engagement research indicates that users actively seek social media connections with brand fan pages in return for a range of benefits (Brodie et al 2011, de Vries et al 2012). We seek to understand whether the extent of information disclosure to an organisation is related to the benefit being sought. Our work tests whether brand engagement motivations meaningfully classify social media users and then examines the extent to which information disclosure varies between user classifications.

Objective:

To apply Uses and Gratifications Theory (Katz et al 1973) to identify the motivations behind social media users’ engagement with brands and relate these motivations to differences in information disclosure.

Methods:

We surveyed 400 college students and achieved a sample of 249.  Validated scales were adapted to the context of social media brand engagement: Smock et al (2011) for Facebook Uses and Gratifications and Milne et al (2004) for personal information disclosure. Responses were measured on a 7-Point Likert scale, where 1 is “Strongly Disagree” and 7 is “Strongly Agree”. There were three stages of analysis: (1) an exploratory factor analysis to identify the dimensions of brand engagement motivation (2) a hierarchical cluster analysis to classify social media users according to motivations for engaging with brands; (3) an ANOVA to identify differences in information disclosure between user classifications.

Results: We identify three motivational dimensions for social media brand engagement: ‘Better Treatment’, ‘Brand Connection’ and ‘Brand Entertainment’. Using these motivational dimensions we classify users into three segments: ‘Brand Skeptics’, ‘Brand Value Seekers’ and ‘Brand Enthusiasts’. Results show that Brand Skeptics are not motivated by brand entertainment, brand connections or better treatment and provide evidence of scepticism towards online commercial advances (see Grant 2005). Brand Value Seekers are motivated by financial reward (commercial deals and better prices) and do not seek brand entertainment or brand connection. Brand Enthusiasts are motivated by brand entertainment and brand connection. We find a relationship between brand engagement motivations and the nature of information disclosure. Specifically that Brand Value Seekers are more likely to engage in privacy protection behaviors such as blocking requests for contact, changing default privacy settings and excluding certain personal information from the exchange. The findings have implications for the information solicitation strategies used by brands within social media. Our work shows that offering financial reward will result in limited disclosure whilst offering entertainment and a connection to the brand will gain greater access to information.

Future Work:

Results reveal salient social media user segments with different motivations for engaging with commercial organisations that relate to the extent of information disclosure. We will apply these insights to examine brand engagement motivations and information disclosure among users from different cultures and of different ages.

References:

Brodie, R. J., Ilic, A., Juric, B., & Hollebeek, L. (2013). Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis. 66 (1) Journal of Business Research. pp 105-114

De Vries, L., Gensler, S. and Leeflang, P.S., (2012), Popularity of brand posts on brand fan pages: An investigation of the effects of social media marketing. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(2), 83-91.

Ellison, N.B., Vitak, J., Steinfield, C., Gray, R. and Lampe, C., (2011) Negotiating privacy concerns and social capital needs in a social media environment. In  Privacy online (pp. 19-32). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Grant, I. (2005). Young Peoples’ Relationships with Online Marketing Practices: An Intrusion Too Far?. Journal of Marketing Management, 21(5/6), 607-624.

Ibrahim, Y., (2008). The new risk communities: Social networking sites and risk. International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics, 4(2), 245-253.

Kang, J., Tang, L. and Fiore, A.M., (2014). Enhancing consumer–brand relationships on restaurant Facebook fan pages: Maximizing consumer benefits and increasing active participation. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36 (Jan), 145-155.

Katz, E., Blumler, J. G., & Gurevitch, M. (1973). Uses and gratifications research. Public Opinion Quarterly, 37(4), 509-523.

Milne, G. R., Rohm, A. J., & Bahl, S. (2004). Consumers’ protection of online privacy and identity. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 38(2), 217-232

Smock, A. D., Ellison, N. B., Lampe, C., & Wohn, D. Y. (2011). Facebook as a toolkit: A uses and gratification approach to unbundling feature use. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(6), 2322-2329.

Tufekci, Z. (2008). Can you see me now? Audience and disclosure regulation in online social network sites. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 28(1), 20-36.


Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:46 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:46

Watching me watching you: How observational learning affect self-disclosure on SNS
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Tamar Ashuri, Department of Communication, Tel Aviv University, Israel
  • Shira Dvir Gvirsman, Department of Communication, Tel Aviv University, Israel
  • Ruth Halperin, Oranim College of Education, Israel

This study analyzes the motivations of Social Networking Sites (SNS) users to disclose personally identifiable information on SNS. The rationale for the study stems from the fact that information disclosure is critical to sustaining the popularity and value of SNS. Indeed, without massive production and consumption of identified personal information, SNS will not be able to fulfill users’ attentiveness needed to secure their loyalty (Chen, 2012). Because information disclosure is of strategic value on SNSs, SNS providers employ various tactics to encourage users to disclose information about themselves.

A variety of approaches have been used to explain an individual’s willingness to disclose personal information on SNS. It has been reported that anticipation of benefits, such as enjoyment and social acceptance, motivates users to disclose personal information (e.g. Sledgianowski and Kulviwat, 2008). However, it was noted that the choice to disclose is also affected by the information owner’s perceptions of risks, such as harassment, tracking of browsing history, third party usage of personal data and identity theft. Thus, while perceptions of usefulness offer people a reason to disclose personal information on SNS, perceptions of risk tend to play the opposite role. Acknowledging the push and pull between such conflicting elements, researches introduced the privacy-calculus concept to denote the risk-benefit assessment that users make in deciding how much to disclose (e.g. Dinev et al., 2006).

While providing valuable insight into the effects of risk-benefit assessment on self -disclosure behavior, most of the existing studies overlook the significant role played by reciprocal features of SNS to users’ disclosure motivations. The present study, aims to understand how users’ ability to view and traverse other users’ actions, as well as the rewards and snags they receive, impinge on their privacy-calculus and resulting self- disclosure behavior. Recognizing that SNS provide an environment conducive to social observation and social learning (Zhang and Daugherty, 2009), we develop a model of self-disclosure that draws from the theory of observational learning (Bandura, 2009) and the concept of privacy calculus (e.g. Dinev et al., 2006).

We proposed the following hypotheses:

H1. Perceived gains tied to SD behavior will be positively associated to SD behavior online.

H2. Perceived risks tied to SD behavior will be negatively associated to SD behavior online.

H3. Perceived SD by others will be positively associated to SD behavior online.

H4. Others’ perceived gains due to SD behavior would be positively associated to ones’ perceived gains due to SD.

H5. Others’ perceived risks due to SD behavior would be positively associated to ones’ perceived risks due to SD.

H6. Others’ perceived gains due to SD behavior would have a mediated influence on one’s SD behavior.

H7. Others’ perceived risks due to SD behavior would have a mediated influence on one’s SD behavior.

         We empirically tested our model and associated hypotheses using data we collected through an online survey (N=742 Jewish Israeli Facebook users). The sample was designed to be representative of the Jewish Israeli population of Facebook. We began our analysis with a general assessment of the privacy calculus. The distribution of gains and risks was fairly normal and centered around a small negative mean (M=-2.5, SD=7.7), we found that for themselves, people see self disclosure [herein after: SD] as an activity that involves both risks and benefits. For their Facebook friends [hereinafter: ‘others’], the result was almost identical (M=-.55, SD=7.5). The difference between perception of self and others is small but significant (t1,592=-12.0, p<0.01). In addition, we wanted to test whether people tied SD to risks and gains. That is, if people understand that in order to benefit from SNS, SD is required, but also, that SD on SNS expose them to risks. We found a positive relation between SD behavior and perception of gains, both in the case of ‘self’ and ‘others’. When it comes to risks, however, the pattern is slightly more complex. We found no significant relation between one’s SD behavior and perception of risk. In the case of perception of other’s SD behavior, perceived risks are positively tied to SD behavior. The correlations found suggest that in general, people connect SD behavior to both risks and gains. However, the relations are more noticeable in the case of gains, compared to risks. Be that as it may, in all cases the relations are positive. The pattern found supports the logic of the privacy calculus concept. To test our hypotheses we used SEM. The model was assessed with SD actions and sharing information creating a latent variable of SD behavior, both for self and other. The theoretical model yielded satisfactory results in terms of goodness of fit indices. We obtained a chi-square to df ratio (CMIN/DF) of 1.52. The model fits the data extremely well (χ2  = 24.0, df  = 26, p  = .58; RMSEA = .00, CFI = .998).

Our hypotheses were confirmed with one exception. With respect to gains: Other’s perceived gains were positively associated with perceived gains for self, which were, in turn, positively associated with SD behavior. In addition, other’s perceived gains has a positive and significant indirect effect on SD behavior. As for risks: perceived risks to others were positively associated with perceived risks to self. Others’ former experience - that is, whether or not others were harmed - was associated with perceived risks to self, yet the relation was negative. Contrary to our hypothesis perceived risks to self had no bearing on SD behavior. Importantly, being harmed in the past was positively associated with SD behavior. More so, although perceived risks to self had no effect on SD behavior, perceived risks to others did – negative relation between the two was found. Lastly, perceived SD behaviors of others was positively associated with SD behavior. 

The model we developed enabled us to observe a net positive effects of perceived risk and perceived benefits on personal information disclosure. We found that information regarding SD behaviors of one’s Facebook friends, and the rewards they receive, have a powerful effect on one’s benefits perceptions and by implication on his/hers disclosure behavior. We thus argue that voluntary disclosure on SNS is tied to the usefulness that users attribute to online social networking activities – a perception that is based on their own experiences as well as on the experiences of others actors whom they constantly observe.  

References

Bandura, A. (Ed.). (2009 [1974]). Psychological modeling: Conflicting theories. Transaction Publishers.

Chen, R. (2013). Living a private life in public social networks: An exploration of member self-disclosure. Decision Support Systems, 55(3): 661-668.

Sledgianowski, D. & Kulviwat, S. "Social Network Sites: Antecedents of User Adoption and Usage" (2008). AMCIS 2008 Proceedings. Paper 83.
Retrieved from: http://aisel.aisnet.org/amcis2008/83

Dinev, T., Bellotto, M., Hart, P., Russo, V., Serra, I., & Colautti, C. (2006). Privacy calculus model in e-commerce–a study of Italy and the United States. European Journal of Information Systems, 15(4), 389-402.

Zhang, J., & Daugherty, T. (2009). Third-person effect and social networking: implications for online marketing and word-of-mouth communication. American Journal of Business, 24(2), 53-64.

Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:46 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:46

“What Is It And How Did It Get Here?” Factors Related To Advertising Place And The Use Of Personal Data Influencing User Acceptance Of Facebook Ads
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Evert Van den Broeck, University of Antwerp, Belgium
  • Karolien Poels, University of Antwerp, Belgium
  • Michel Walrave, University of Antwerp, Belgium

Background: 

Facebook is a successful advertising platform as it offers profound advertising customization, due to extensive processing of user information (eMarketer, 2015; Facebook, 2015). Although key to Facebook’s business model, advertising is not the main motivation for its users to access the platform (Wilson, Gosling, & Graham, 2012). Users have to “accept” the presence of advertising alongside the content for which they visit Facebook. Hence, user acceptance is a crucial factor for both the advertiser and the social networking site.

Objective: 

We investigate the impact of different choices and options in the creation of Facebook ads, related to the use of personal data (e.g. sensitivity of personal data) and advertising place (e.g. ad location), on user acceptance. Six factors were identified, based on theory and practice, and implemented in fictitious advertisements on a mock Facebook page. Each factor had two or three possible manifestations:

Factors related to the use of personal data

1)    Social context: the ad either included a message “[A friend] likes [brand]” or not.

2)    Data collector’s perceived risk: An energy company (pre-tested high perceived risk), and a movie company (pre-tested low perceived risk).

3)    Data use transparency: a message about data use was either included in the ad or not.

4)    Sensitivity of personal data in the ad: “no personal data”, “low sensitive”, or “high sensitive” personal data.

 

Factors related to advertising place

5)    Ad location: “newsfeed”, a person’s “timeline”, or “fan page of an unrelated brand”.

6)    Ad placement on the page: “left sidebar”, “right sidebar”, or “message stream”.

Product involvement, an influential processing variable, was included as a moderator (Dens & De Pelsmacker, 2010; Lee, Kim, & Sundar, 2015).  

Methods: 

An online full factorial survey was completed by 409 Facebook users (53% response rate), aged 25 to 55 years (M = 40.18, SD = 8.9, 54.5% female). By randomizing the manifestations of each factor, 217 (3*3*3*2*2*2) vignette-combinations were created. A sample of 100 vignettes was drawn and was divided over 20 decks. Each respondent was randomly assigned to one 5-vignette deck. For each vignette they indicated their user acceptance (7-point, Cronbach's alpha = .939).

Results:

Multilevel analysis was performed with the six factors as independent variables and user acceptance as the dependent (Auspurg & Hinz, 2014). Only a significant effect of placement on user acceptance was found. The right sidebar placement (M = 3.70) was better accepted than the message stream placement (b = -.13, t(1660.48) = 2.19, p = .029) and the left sidebar placement (b = -.18, t(1659.61) = -3.15, p = .002), which did not differ. Interaction analyses indicated product involvement as a moderator. A multilevel analysis was performed on both the low and high involvement group. Respondents scoring low on product involvement, accepted ads in the right sidebar placement best (M = 3.60), followed by the left sidebar placement (b = -.22, t(756.12) = -2.44, p = .015) and the message stream placement (b = -.47, t(766.29) = -5.05, p < .001). The high product involvement group accepted the message stream placement best (M = 3.98), followed by the right sidebar placement (b = -.15, t(900.77) = -1.94, p = .052), and the left sidebar placement (b = -.31, t(901.22) = -4.04, p < .001). In conclusion, user acceptance is primarily driven by ad placement. Yet, its influence depends on the degree of product involvement. High product involvement is related to higher acceptance of ads with a prominent placement. Ads for low involved products are better accepted when shown in the sidebar. These findings can be related to differences in processing of (native) in-stream ads compared to (banner) sidebar ads.

Future Work: 

The results are the basis for more in-depth experimental analysis on the role of advertising placement on the acceptance of Facebook advertising, and the influence of intrusiveness as a mediator. A follow-up experiment is carried out and a full paper is expected in summer 2016.

References:

Auspurg, K., & Hinz, T. (2014). Factorial Survey Experiments. SAGE Publications.

Dens, N., & De Pelsmacker, P. (2010). Consumer response to different advertising appeals for new products: The moderating influence of branding strategy and product category involvement. Journal of Brand Management, 18(1), 50–65. http://doi.org/10.1057/bm.2010.22

eMarketer. (2015, March). Facebook and Twitter Will Take 33% Share of US Digital Display Market by 2017 - eMarketer. Retrieved December 18, 2015, from http://www.emarketer.com/Article/Facebook-Twitter-Will-Take-33-Share-of-US-Digital-Display-Market-by-2017/1012274

Facebook. (2015). About Advertising on Facebook. Retrieved December 18, 2015, from https://www.facebook.com/about/ads

Jung, J., Shim, S. W., Jin, H. S., & Khang, H. (2015). Factors affecting attitudes and behavioural intention towards social networking advertising: a case of Facebook users in South Korea. International Journal of Advertising, 35(2), 248–265. http://doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2015.1014777

Lee, S., Kim, K. J., & Sundar, S. S. (2015). Customization in location-based advertising: Effects of tailoring source, locational congruity, and product involvement on ad attitudes. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, Part A, 336–343. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.04.049

Wilson, R. E., Gosling, S. D., & Graham, L. T. (2012). A Review of Facebook Research in the Social Sciences. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(3), 203–220. http://doi.org/10.1177/1745691612442904


Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:46 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:46

Differentiated Facebook use in the context of digital inequality
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Fanny Ramirez, Rutgers University, United States

Background:

Studies on Internet use tend to cast a wide net and examine how different social groups use the web at large rather than how they use specific websites or applications. Such research has been very valuable in establishing how social inequalities, broadly, are carried over online, but they do not tell us where on the Internet user practices are more likely or less likely to be influenced by sociodemographic factors. 

Objective:

This paper addresses this gap in knowledge by examining the sociodemographic factors (sex, race, and socioeconomic status) that predict the likelihood of using Facebook for: 1) Keeping up with the news and current events: 2) receiving updates and comments from the people in one’s network; and 3) receiving support from the people in one’s network. The paper focuses on what factors predict whether individuals identify one or more of these uses as a major reason for why they use the social network site. Looking at the reasons why different social groups use Facebook is important because many studies have linked social media use to benefits such as increased social capital, greater social involvement, political awareness, and opportunities for democratic deliberations (Ellison, Vitak, Gray, & Lampe, 2014; Gil de Zúñiga, 2012; Halperm & Gibbs, 2013; Ledbetter, Mazer, DeGroot, Meyer, Mao, & Swafford, 2011; Warren, Sulaiman, & Jaafar, 2014). 

Methods:

The data for this study were collected in 2013 as part of the Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Random digit dialing was used to obtain a nationally representative sample of 1,800 Americans. The relationship of sex, race, and socioeconomic status on the importance of using Facebook to keep up with the news and current events, receive updates and comments, and receive support is assessed through multivariate logistic regression analyses. Age, frequency of Facebook use, number of Facebook friends, and political engagement are used as control variables. 

Results:

Contrary to the findings from previous studies about the relationship between race, socioeconomic status, and online news consumption, results indicate that blacks are more likely than whites to claim that accessing news is a major reason for why they use Facebook. Additionally, individuals with a higher socioeconomic status were found to be less likely than individuals with only a high school education to report using Facebook for this purpose. These findings suggest that Facebook appeals to less privileged groups and racial minorities and that the website is helping bridge the digital divide in online news consumption. As for using Facebook to stay in touch with family and friends, results show that sex is not a predictor of citing receiving updates and comments as a major reason for using Facebook. However, consistent with findings on gendered social support practices online and in interpersonal contexts, results show that women have much higher odds than men of reporting that receiving support is a major reason for why they use Facebook. Although no significant gender differences were found in people’s motivation for using Facebook to get updates and comments from friends and family members, results indicate that receiving support is one form of online activity where gender differences persist. 

Future Work:

The finding that African Americans are much more likely than whites to cite keeping up with the news as a major reason for why they use Facebook raises interesting questions about the current state of the digital divide. Future research should look at how sociodemographic factors influence user practices across multiple websites and applications to see where and how certain patterns of inequality emerge and disappear. 

References 

Ellison, N., Vitak, J., Gray, R.., & Lampe, C. (2014). Cultivating social resources on social network sites: Facebook relationship maintenance behaviors and their role in social capital processes. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19, 855-870. doi:10.1111/jcc4.12078 
Gil de Zúñiga, H. (2012). Social media use for news and individuals' social capital, civic engagement and political participation. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 17, 319-336. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2012.01574.x 
Halpern, D., & Gibbs, J. (2013). Social media as a catalyst for online deliberation? Exploring the affordances of Facebook and YouTube for political expression. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1159-1168. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.10.008 
Ledbetter, A. M., Mazer, J. P., DeGroot, J. M., Meyer, K. R., Mao, Y., & Swafford, B. (2011). 
Attitudes toward online social connection and self-disclosure as predictors of Facebook communication and relational closeness. Communication Research, 38, 27-53. 
Warren, A. M., Sulaiman, A., & Jaafar, N. I. (2014). Facebook: The enabler of online civic engagement for activists. Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 284-289. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2013.12.017  

Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:46 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:46

Shut up and like it: the spiral of silence on Facebook.
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Marilia Pereira, PPGCOM ESPM, Brazil

Background: 

Besides all Web 2.0 facilities for sharing self-content and SMS gratifications for this practice, this study aims to discuss if Facebook users are stuck by self-censorship and silence. Many scholars argue how issues such as context collapse, privacy management, surveillance awareness and illiteracy could be related to self-information disclosures restrictions, bringing side effects to performances online. Combining a set of desk research and analysis of empirical studies on the topic, we could propose users fell less comfortable to talk about themselves and are more likely to perform their identity by consuming, liking and sharing third parties performances. In fact, a 21% decline in original personal sharing (from mid-2014 to mid-2015) was recently reported on Facebook[1]. Our contribution is to analyse why people decide to like and share the things they do through the Spiral of Silence theory and dynamics (NOELLE-NEUMANN, 2001). Relating public opinion to friends opinion and how Facebook make it visible, actors' choices could be defined not only by affinity or admiration, but also under the influence of these performances' audience measures. As described in the spiral of silence model, because some content seems to spread among their social network, actors could assume that they reflect the majority opinion. Thus, the fear of being isolated could motivate their endorsements and consumption. This hypothesis drives us to the majority illusion phenomena (LERMAN, YAN, WU, 2015) and how Facebook might transform visibility into silence.

Objective: 

Verify if the Spiral of Silence phenomenon can be observed on Facebook and how is it impacts on users self-censorship and self-presentation. 


Results: 

As a work-in-progress paper, we do not allow conclusive results. However, based on the desk research carried out, we found out that:   

• 44% of Facebook users “like” content posted by their friends at least once a day, with 29% doing so several times per day. 31% comment on other people’s photos on a daily basis, with 15% doing so several times per day. 19% send private Facebook messages to their friends on a daily basis, with 10% sending these messages multiple times per day. 10% change or update their own status on Facebook on a daily basis, with 4% updating their status several times per day. Some 25% of Facebook users say that they never change or update their own Facebook status[2] (transcription from original text). 

• 71% of the 3.9 million users in this sample self-censored at least one post or comment over the course of 17 days, confirming that self-censorship is common. Posts are censored more than comments (33% vs. 13%). Also, we found that decisions to self-censor content strongly affected by a user’s perception of audience[3] (transcription from original text).

• 20% of Facebook users like pages because they see friends already did it[4]. 

Future Work: 

Apply a survey to observe: a) the effect of "opinion climate" over Facebook users likes and shares; b) the influence of friends' reputation over the consumption and interactions made online.

Conduct indeep interviews with some of the survey participants to deepen the discussion why people like and share what they do on Facebook.

References:

LERMAN, K., YAN, X., WU, X. (2015). The Majority Illusion in Social Networks. USC Information Sciences Institute. http://arxiv.org/abs/1506.03022

NOELLE-NEUMANN, E. (2013). La espiral del silencio - Opinión pública: nuestra piel social. Barcelona: Editora Vozes.

[1] Bloomberg Technology (2016). Facebook wants you to post more about yourself. <http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-07/facebook-said-to-face-decline-in-people-posting-personal-content?platform=hootsuite>. Acess on Access on 04/11/16. 

[2] Pew Research Center (2014). http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/02/03/6-new-facts-about-facebook/. Access on 09/28/15.

[3] DAS, Sauvik and KRAMER, Adam (2003). Self-Censorship on Facebook. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org). http://sauvik.me/system/papers/pdfs/000/000/004/original/self-censorship_on_facebook_cameraready.pdf?1369713003. Access on 09/28/15.

[4] Synapse.com (2013). Why consumers become brand fans. http://www.syncapse.com/why-consumers-become-brand-fans/#.Vg7UfHvDaOX. Access on 10/02/15.


Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:46 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:46

User-generated counter-hegemonic discourse in social media: The case of the Hong Kong Police Force Facebook page
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Michael Chan, Chinese University of Hong Kong
  • Cicy Tong, Community College of City University

Background:

In recent years there has been increasing scholarly interest on the use of social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) by law enforcement agencies to reach out to and engage with citizens, such as in the United States (Brainard & Edlins, 2015), Canada (Schneider, 2014), and United Kingdom (Crump, 2011). These efforts are part of strategic efforts to engage in police “image work” so as to reinforce perceptions of authority, legitimacy, and credibility.

This study focuses on the Facebook group page of the Hong Kong Police Force (HKPF), established in October 5th, 2015. The launch came one week after the one- year anniversary of the Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong where the HKPF was widely criticized for the firing of teargas on protesters. Moreover, citizen’s satisfaction with the police, dubbed as “Asia’s finest”, has fallen from 81% in 2007 to 50% in 2015 (HKUPOP, 2015). Most of the Umbrella Movement protesters were young, a demographic that is also the heaviest users of social media. Thus, the prospects for civil and rational discourse on the HKPF Facebook page did not appear promising. In fact, it may even become a site of discursive contestation and a “critical-reflexive space” for counter discourses to be disseminated by users against those in power (Dahlberg, 2011). This is especially the case for Hong Kong, where protests for greater democracy have in recent years become more confrontational and provocative (Garrett & Ho, 2014). 

Objective:

This study examines: 

  • The presentational strategies adopted by the HKPF in terms of the types of posts it desseminates on its Facebook page
  • Users’ responses to such posts and the types of discourse they adopt 

Thus, this study takes a step further in the literature by actually examining the content of the messages. 

Methods:

The study uses a hybrid approach that combines big data with discourse/content analysis (Lewis, Zamith, & Hermida, 2013). First, all HKPD Facebook posts is extracted using Facepager (Keyling & Jünger, 2013). Then, systematic concordance analyses using AntConc (Anthony, 2014) are conducted in order to quantity the most common words/phrases and qualitatively classify the different genres of discourse. This study examines the prevalence and sustainability of counterdiscourses derived from the ten ‘statement’ posts. The rationale is that these posts generally have the highest level of user engagement and comprise 40% of all user comments. They are the most authoritative in the sense that they represent the ‘voice’ of the HKPF leadership. The negatively of user comments in the first two days of the HKPF Facebook page was widely reported by the Hong Kong media. 

Results: 

Preliminary concordance analyses of key words and subsequent qualitative categorizing and analyses led to some findings: 

  • Prevalence of a vocal minority users. Such users post frequently and are generally negative towards the police. They are more likely to post external comment (e.g. URL links, videos etc.).
  • Counter-hegemonic intertextual political discourse. User comments often had no relation to the actual HKPF posts. Rather, many user posts were critical of police actions during the umbrella movement.
  • Political culture jamming. Such posts constituted a form of “rhetorical sabotage” (Harold, 2004) and ‘political jams’ that challenge dominant discourse with counter-hegemonic discourse (Cammaerts, 2007).
  • Use of diverse text genres. Many genres were utilized, from insults to mockery, and satire to humour.
  • Visual siege. Some posts focused on dominating the ‘visual space’ of the comment area, such as repeated iterations of “black police” that filled up the whole message section. Others embedded anti-police YouTube video 
Future Work: 

The longer-term goals of the project are to analyze the messages longitudinally to have a better understanding of the posts, user types, and related intertextual political discourse. 

References:

Anthony, L. (2014). AntConc (Version 3.4.3). Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. Retrieved from http://www.laurenceanthony.net/

Brainard, L., & Edlins, M. (2015). Top 10 U.S. Municipal Police Departments and Their Social Media Usage. American Review of Public Administration, 45(6), 728-745.

Cammaerts, B. (2007). Jamming the Political: Beyond Counter-hegemonic Practices. Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, 21(2), 71-90.

Crump, J. (2011). What Are the Police Doing on Twitter? Social Media, the Police and the Public. Policy & Internet, 3(4).

Dahlberg, L. (2011). Re-constructing digital democracy: An outline of four ‘positions. New Media & Society, 17(1), 855-872

Garrett, D., & Ho, W.-c. (2014). Hong Kong at the brink: Emerging forms of political participation in the new social movement. In J. Y. S. Cheng (Ed.), New trends in Hong Kong's political participation (pp. 347-384). Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.

Harold, C. (2004). Pranking rhetoric: "culture jamming" as media activism. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 21(3), 189-211.

HKUPOP. (2015). People's Satisfaction with the Performance of the Hong Kong Police Force. Retrieved Jun 27, 2013, from https://www.hkupop.hku.hk/english/popexpress/hkpolice/halfyr/hkpolice_halfyr_char t.html

Keyling, T., & Jünger, J. (2013). Facepager. An application for generic data retrieval through APIs. from https://github.com/strohne/Facepager

Lewis, S. C., Zamith, R., & Hermida, A. (2013). Content Analysis in an Era of Big Data: A Hybrid Approach to Computational and Manual Methods. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 57(1), 34-52.

Schneider, C. J. (2014). Police presentational strategies on Twitter in Canada. Policing and Society. 


Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:46 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:46

Yarn makes / strong ties
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Alison Mayne, Sheffield Hallam University


Background:

The paper reflects on aspects of a larger PhD. study exploring perceptions of wellbeing in female amateur knit and crochet crafters, focusing specifically on the ways that participants share their experiences of making in a virtual social community on Facebook. It seeks to highlight the ways that participants seek wellbeing through knit or crochet practice and in sharing their making in a digital space. Amateur makers weaving both tactile object and social connections through online media are significantly under-researched. This is despite the fact that yarn-based digital communities such as Ravelry have memberships in the millions (Orton-Johnson, 2014) and participants involved in Facebook knit and crochet groups number in hundreds of thousands (Mayne, in press). 

Objective: 

The use of an online community to engage and communicate with participants as well as a platform from which to collect data is a deliberate response to calls from the UK’s Arts and Humanities Research Council to explore the 'ethics and ontologies of participation and collaboration… via digital networks' (Armstrong et al., 2014, p.58). It seeks to promote the value of what may be learned from qualitative, ‘small data’ study of an online community, rather than its more popular, large-scale counterpart. Moreover, questions regarding the ways social media research may be conducted ethically are an integral part of the research conversation with participants. 

Methods: 

This qualitative study has been facilitated through the creation in early 2015 of a closed Facebook community – the ‘Woolly Wellbeing Research Group’ - which was designed to engage participants in sharing their views. Participants are drawn from a pragmatic and purposive sample of women initially invited through Twitter and Facebook crafting groups. There are over 400 participants representing over 20 countries. With the researcher working as participant-observer, data has been gathered from thousands of ephemeral ‘chat’ posts, extended reflections in response to research questions and images of completed textiles or works in progress. 

Results: 

The situation of this work, at the intersections of digital ethnography and the tactile experiences of textile craft-making, is beginning to explore motivations in contributing to a small community online. Thematic analysis is being used to explore participants’ experience of navigating the haptic in tactile making and its presentation in a digital space and the ethical implications of being part of a research community on social media. 
Participants reflect that their engagement in an online knit and crochet group has provided an outlet for a sense of agency and a vehicle through which to enhance their perceptions of self-esteem. These aspects of wellbeing are being fixed in time through sharing on Facebook, where participants are curating a digital record of their own making. 

Future Work:

The next stage of the study is a digital journaling project, where participants track their experiences of wellbeing through making with yarn over several months. Here, it is anticipated that a more nuanced understanding of participants’ motivations for sharing tactile hand-craft in through an online community may be gained. 

References: 

Armstrong, L., Bailey, J., Julier, G. and Kimbell, L. (2014). Social design futures: HEI 
research and the Arts and Humanities Research Council . Brighton: University of Brighton and Victoria and Albert Museum. 
Mayne, A. (in press). Virtually ethical: Ethnographic challenges in researching textile crafters 
online. In Daniels, J., Gregory, K. and McMillan Cottom, T., (eds.) Digital sociologies. Bristol: Policy Press. (Accepted for publication September, 2015) 
Orton-Johnson, K. (2014). DIY citizenship, critical making and community. In Ratto, M. and 
Boler, M. (eds.) DIY citizenship: Critical making and social media. (pp.141-155). Cambridge MA: MIT Press. 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:46 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:46

Detecting Well-Established Trends about Political Affiliation and Affect in Facebook Microblogs
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Roxanne B. Raine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, United States
  • Scott P. Robertson, University of Hawaii at Manoa, United States

Background: 

It is well-established that conservatives report higher life satisfaction than liberals (Napier & Jost, 2008; Alesina, Di Tella, & MacCulloch, 2004; Taylor, Funk, & Craighill, 2006), even when controlling for potential confounds such as household income, age, education, and numerous other factors. Although the finding that conservatives tend to seem happier than liberals is not new, our research contributes to the existing body of literature in two ways. First, the detection of this trend in microblogs is novel, as previous findings were based on surveys about life-satisfaction. And second, by analyzing the content of the microblogs, we gain insight into the reality behind this well-known trend. Further plans for research are also discussed. 


Objective: 

We investigate whether these life-satisfaction differences are detectable between Facebook status updates of liberal versus conservative Americans.


Methods: 

Our source of Facebook updates was www.myPersonality.org, which provides over 4,000,000 individuals’ Facebook profile information (Kosinski et al., 2015). The myPersonality project is affiliated with 250 researchers and over 32 publications (e.g., Youyou, Kosinski & Stillwell, 2015; Lamiotte & Kosinski, 2014).

The dataset of 16,906 users’ self-proclaimed political affiliations in the myPersonality database is comprised of 144 categories because Facebook does not have any constraints on what can be entered in this field. For some of the affiliations (e.g., “democrat”), a user’s status as liberal is clear. However, some are less objectively categorized, so we had 13 people interpret the affiliations. We narrowed the users into 3 types of voters: conservatives (3,622), liberals (5,333), and either (2,496). Probable non-voters were excluded. Rationale for this will be explained in the presentation.

Example affiliations in each category:

Liberal - Obama baby, Democrat, Liberal

Conservative - Conservative, Nobama, Republican

Either -  Depends, I don’t know, Middle of the road

Neither - Who cares?, Bullshit, Anarchy

We then compared groups using Linguistic Analyisis and Word Count (LIWC) emotionality data (Tausczik & Pennebaker, 2010). LIWC measures a corpus’ emotionality based on word frequency. For example, positive emotion words such as love, nice, and sweet increase a body of text’s positive emotion score, whereas hurt, ugly, and nasty increase negative emotion scores. We compared these two LIWC scores for our users in the three voting groups: liberal, conservative, and either.

Results: 

An ANOVA comparing positive and negative emotion words in status updates of conservatives, liberals, and swing voters showed significant differences for positive emotions F(2, 11,448) = 25.93, p < 0.001 and for negative emotions F(2, 11,448) = 25.93, p < 0.001. Fisher LSD post-hoc analyses showed that liberals and conservatives were significantly different in both ANOVAs. The “either” group did not have any significant differences.

Future Work: 

There are a number of possible explanations for why liberals are less happy than conservatives. Although these possibilities have been discussed in previous literature, no conclusions have yet been made. One possibility is that one tends to associate more with members of the same political party. Over time, the peer group’s affect could converge, causing this emotional heterogeneity between groups. Another alternative is that the worldview that leads one to become liberal or conservative is at the root of the language differences we have found. If that is the case, the content of the status updates could provide more insight, which will also be discussed in the presentation.  

Although numerous other studies have found that liberals tend to be less happy than conservatives, to our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the everyday Facebook language of liberals versus conservatives reflects the previously found affect differences between groups. We plan to continue this research with empirical studies to determine whether we can reverse the effect. If the effect is reversible, that would provide evidence that the peer groups are driving the language. We will also continue our text analysis by evaluating the content of the updates, which will lead to a deeper understanding of the types of positive and negative statements being made by each group. These findings could influence politics, commerce, and social media design.


References:
 

Alesina, A., Di Tella, R., & MacCulloch, R. (2004). Inequality and happiness: are Europeans and Americans different? Journal of Public Economics, 88(9-10), 2009–2042. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2003.07.006

Kosinski, M., Matz, S., Gosling, S., Popov, V. & Stillwell, D. (2015). Facebook as a social science research tool: Opportunities, challenges, ethical considerations and practical guidelines. American Psychologist, 70(6), 543-556.

Lambiotte, R. & Kosinski, M. (2014). Tracking the digital footprints of personality. Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 102(12), 1934-1939.

Napier, J. L., & Jost, J. T. (2008). Why Are Conservatives Happier Than Liberals? Psychological Science, 19(6), 565–572. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02124.x

Tausczik & Pennebaker, J.W. (2010). The psychological meaning of words: LIWC and computerized text analysis methods. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 29(1), 24-54.

Taylor, P., Funk, C., & Craighill, P. (2006). Are we happy yet? Pew Research Center social trends report. (M. A. Motes, Ed.) PloS one (8). http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083143

Youyou, W., Kosinski, M., & Stillwell, D. (2015). Computer-based personality judgments are more accurate than those made by humans. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences (PNAS), 112(4), 1036-1040. http://www.pnas.org/content/112/4/1036.full


Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:46 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:46

Everyday Nationhood on the Web: An Analysis of Discourses Surrounding Romanian and Bulgarian Migration to the UK Using Twitter Data
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Bindi Shah, University of Southampton, United Kingdom 
  • Justin Murphy, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
  • Jessica Ogden, University of Southampton, United Kingdom

Background: 

On 1st January 2014 restrictions were lifted on the migration of Romanians and Bulgarians to the UK. Leading up to this date and since then, heated debate has ensued about the impact of this migration. Discourses and images of the country being swamped by this new ‘other’ have proliferated.

Objective: 

Our aim is to investigate how these debates were discursively constructed over the micro-blogging platform Twitter over a five month period October 1, 2013 and March 1, 2014. We draw on understandings of how the nation and national identity is reproduced in established nation-states of the ‘West. Billig (1995) sought to draw our attention to the familiar, habitual, unconscious ways in which the nation is flagged in countries like Britain, which he terms ‘banal nationalism’. But in recent years Billig has been criticized for maintaining a separation between ‘banal’ and ‘hot’ nationalism. Skey (2009) and Jones and Merriman (2009) argue that we cannot assume that nationalism is banal for everyone who lives in Britain at the current time, given the complexity of group identities. Skey, and Jones and Merriman advocate for a notion of everyday nationalism, which incorporates banal and mundane processes but may also include a variety of hotter “differences and conflicts” that affect people’s lives on a habitual basis. The notion of everyday nationalism brings into focus the ways in which people make sense of and/or resist nationalisms emanating from the state. For our research, the notion of everyday nationalism suggests two research questions:

- How do individuals, rather than politicians or the media, shape ideas of who can belong to the nation?

- Do micro-blogging platforms enable heightened nationalism and anti-immigrant discourses or do they also provide a platform for challenging such discourses?

Methods: 

We purchased all status updates on the social media platform Twitter created between October 1, 2013 and March 1, 2014 containing the words "immigration," "immigrant," "migration", or "migrant," and Bulgaria/Bulgarian, Romania/Romanian, England, UK, or Britain. This five-month period allowed us to examine how the conversation around immigration was shaped by the defining event of the lifting of restrictions on Romanian and Bulgarian migration on 1st January 2014.The sample contains 136,960 tweets.

The first stage of analysis involved quantitative network analysis to explore differences among users with a high degree of network centrality for the months of October and December. Specifically, we analysed all tweets that were in the 90th percentile of influence, which we define here as the 90th percentile of the total number of retweets received per tweet. For a tweet to be in the 90th percentile it needed to receive at least 3 retweets in October and 3.4 retweets in December.

The second stage of this research involved qualitative discourse analysis of a five percent random sample of tweets for the month of October and December. This stage was focused on investigating the migration/immigration discourses embedded in tweets from ‘lone users’ or users that exhibited a low degree of network centrality, and whether, and how, these discourses shifted over time.

Results: 

As expected, quantitative analysis reveals that the most influential accounts in each month are typically mainstream media outlets and other leading social media sites. Additionally, the connectedness of these most influential accounts appears to increase over time. Distinct from much research based around "hashtags," however, our focus on related but different key terms produces a sample with a relatively large portion of isolates and very small conversations. Thus, one descriptive finding is that during this period of heightened immigration salience, the ‘conversation’ on Twitter was generally decentralised and not overwhelmingly dominated by any particular actors. In other words, the quantitative analysis suggests that in this instance, Twitter as a micro-blogging platform is not primarily an ‘echo chamber’ and not a highly hierarchical network replicating distributions of media power offline.

The qualitative discourse analysis highlighted the multiplicity of nationalist discourses on immigration that individuals in Britain engaged in towards the end of 2013. The majority of ‘lone users’ were simply tweeting mainstream media headlines or redistributing tweets by the influential Twitter users, without additional commentary. Where it was possible to identify discourses related to immigration from the tweet itself and/or from the user descriptions, a greater proportion of tweets represented an anti-immigration discourse than a pro-immigration discourse. The anti-immigration discourses in both the month of October and December were largely similar, but analysis revealed two key differences: a) In October the focus was on illegal immigrants and immigrant in general, while in December the focus shifted specifically to Romanian and Bulgarian immigrants; b) and there was a palpable moral panic in December about what the lifting of restrictions on January 1st 2014 would mean for immigration to the UK. 

Our findings suggest that both those who are anti-immigration and those who are pro-immigration are engaged in the discursive construction of the nation on the micro-blogging platform Twitter. However, the anti-immigrant narratives are much more cohesive, indicating that one organisation sets the tone for anti immigrant discourses. While Twitter provides a platform for challenging this exclusive nationalism, the pro-immigration narratives are too diverse and complex to construct a cohesive discourse that promotes an inclusive idea of the British state and Britishness that can challenge the exclusive nationalism of those promoting an anti-immigration stance. 

Future Work: 

Future work will involve further quantitative and qualitative analysis to explore change in the structure of the retweet network, and the discourses surrounding migration/immigration over time. Drawing on the terms identified in the qualitative results, additional work will focus on the use of advanced textual analysis methods (such as frequency, ‘co-occurrence’ and ‘co-location’ of terms) for recognising patterns in the use of specific terms in either pro- or anti-immigration tweets. It is our aim that a combination of both automated and manual identification of important terms will further assist in identifying discourses, but also key actors in the propagation of information in tweets surrounding this topic.

 

References:
 

Billig, M. (1995) Banal Nationalism. London: SAGE

Skey (2009) ‘The national in everyday life: A critical engagement with Michael Billig’s thesis of Banal Nationalism’. The Sociological Review 57 (2): 331-346.

Jones, R. and P. Merriman (2009) ‘Hot, banal and everyday nationalism: Bilingual road signs in Wales’. Political Geography 28:164-173



Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:46 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:46

Social media as a source of information: an exploratory study of young Libyans’ perceptions of the impact of social media in Libya during the period 2011-2015
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Sukaina Ehdeed, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom 
  • Jo Bates, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom 
  • Andrew Cox, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom 

As one of the Arab Spring countries, Libya has lived through fast-moving events in which Facebook and other social networking sites have played a major role in delivering news, and shaping peoples’ attitudes towards past and current events and revolutionary change. The proposed research seeks to answer questions about young Libyans’ perception of the impact of social media in Libya in relation to the revolution and post-revolutionary period (2011-2015).

Background:

Social media sites such as Facebook played a key role during the so-called ‘Arab Spring’ between December 2010 and March 2011 (Yli-Kaitala, 2014; Khondker, 2011; Hussain & Howard, 2013). While much of the research so far has focused upon Egypt and Tunisia, relatively little is known about the extent to which sites such as Facebook played a role in delivering news and shaping attitudes towards the ‘uprising’ in Libya during this period. This study will explore the perspectives of young Libyans aged between 24 and 35 in relation to the revolution and post-revolutionary period (2011-2016). It does so by presenting an overview of the role of social media in Libyan uprising based on a critical thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with young Libyans exploring how social media was used to promote dissent and spread information in the country; and a content analysis of a sample of public Facebook pages focusing on the anniversaries of the uprising from 2012 to 2016 to look for changing content at systematic periods. 

Objective:

The overall aim of the research is to explore how young Libyans perceive the impact of social media for spreading information and news during the revolutionary and post-revolutionary period 2011-2015 

Methods: 

Data will be collected through semi-structured interviews based on a snowball sample of young people inside Libya (in Tripoli, Benghazi and Sebha city), and within the Libyan diaspora in the UK, followed by content analysis of a sample of public Facebook pages. 

Results:

A pilot study encompassing semi-structured interviews with 5 young people from Tripoli and the Libyan diaspora in the UK, and content analysis of the “Libyan intelligence” Facebook page of the first anniversary of Libyan uprising in 2012 will be undertaken in order to explore the general attitudes, test the research design, and modify the research instruments. The findings from the pilot study will be presented. 
 
Future Work:

Firstly, further reading will also be undertaken to keep developing the theoretical framework in this ongoing PhD research. Secondly, fieldwork will be undertaken and empirical data will be collected to answer the research questions. The data is then prepared for the next phase in which it is analysed and evaluated to extract findings and start the write up of the thesis. 

References:

Hussain, M. M., & Howard, P. N. (2013). What best explains successful protest cascades? ICTs and the fuzzy causes of the Arab Spring. International Studies Review, 15, 48–66. doi:10.1111/misr.12020

Khondker, H. H. (2011). Role of the New Media in the Arab Spring. Globalizations, 8(5), 675– 679. doi:10.1080/14747731.2011.621287

Yli-Kaitala, K. (2014). Revolution 2.0 in Egypt: Pushing for Change, Foreign Influences on a Popular Revolt. Journal of Political Marketing, 13, 127–151. doi:10.1080/15377857.2014.866412 

 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:46 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

10:46

Twitter Adoption in U.S. Legislatures: A Fifty-State Study
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: James Cook, University of Maine at Augusta, United States


This study draws theoretical inspiration from the literature on Twitter adoption and Twitter activity in United States legislatures, applying predictions from those limited studies to all 7,378 politicians serving across 50 American state legislatures in the fall of 2015. Tests of bivariate association carried out for individual states lead to widely varying results, indicating an underlying diversity of legislative environments. However, a pooled multivariate analysis for all 50 states indicates that the number of constituents per legislator, district youth, district level of educational attainment, legislative professionalism, being a woman, sitting in the upper chamber, holding a leadership position, and legislative inexperience are all significantly and positively associated with Twitter adoption and Twitter activity. Controlling for these factors, neither legislator party, nor majority status, nor partisan instability, nor district income, nor the percent of households in a state with an Internet connection is significantly related to either Twitter adoption or recent Twitter use. A significant share of variation in social media adoption by legislators remains unexplained, leaving considerable room for further theoretical development and the development of contingent historical accounts. 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 10:46 - 12:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

12:15

Lunch (self-organized)
Need some ideas for your lunch hangout? Checkout these nearby options

  1. Chinwag
  2. Nouvell Spice 
  3. Thailand 
  4. The New Cross House 
  5. Rose Pub and Kitchen
  6. Yao Kee 
  7. New Cross Inn 
  8. ReynA 
  9. Loafers, The Pd, The Refectory, Tasette Shop 


Wednesday July 13, 2016 12:15 - 13:45
TBA

13:45

Panel 5E: Scraping the Ground: Qualitative Inquiry at the Online/Offline Interface
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Contributors: 

  • John Boy, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands
  • Karen Gregory, University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom
  • Ingrid Hoelzl, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong

The contemporary city has been described as a “stack” (Bratton 2016), an “interface” (De Waal 2014), a “mixed reality” (Galloway 2004), as “augmented” (Graham, Zook and Boulton 2013), “mediatized” (Lundby 2014), and “cross-hatched” (Miéville 2009). These metaphors and models call attention to the ways that everyday life in the city has been profoundly molded by the ubiquitous presence of computing devices and digital media platforms. Researchers trying to make sense of everyday life in the city are presented with a set of theoretical and methodological issues arising from these transformations in and of their research sites. Thus, a recently survey found that the average American smartphone user spends almost three hours per day on their phone, mostly using social media and messaging apps. This activity only leaves digital traces that researchers seeking to make sense of everyday life must take into account somehow. Moreover, the volume and variety of translocal interactions urban dwellers engage in, whether through social media or other digital channels, must be understood as an integral part of urban social life. 

This panel proposes to tackle these issues by bringing the research traditions of urban ethnography and community studies into conversation with recent theoretical and methodological developments, including quali-quantitative methods and actor-network theory (Venturini and Latour 2010), digital ethnography (Pink et al. 2015), live social research (Back & Puwar 2013), the microsociology of mediated environments (Collins 2010; Hancock and Garner 2015), and computational social science (Lazer et al. 2009). 

We seek to evaluate what these developments contribute to the practice of field research and to critical understandings of everyday life more generally. We will ask questions related to empirical strategies, for instance about how we can understand group formation and conflict without simply studying hashtag campaigns, thereby sampling only cases where activist uses of social media play a pivotal role. More broadly, we will address questions such as: How can we choose research sites and ascertain their boundaries? What are logistical problems, compounding complexities, new and old ethical quandaries, and epistemological implications of working with these methods? 

In their reflections, panelists will draw on their research projects, which span multiple cities, continents, and contexts and draw on a varied mix of research methods.

Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:45 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 302 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:45

Session 5A: Dark Side of Social Media
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:45 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:45

Session 5B: Politics II: Protest & Activism
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
TH

Tim Highfield

Queensland University of Technology

Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:45 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:45

Session 5C: Networks
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
avatar for Caroline Haythornthwaite

Caroline Haythornthwaite

Professor, UBC
Caroline Haythornthwaite is Professor in The iSchool at The University of British Columbia to June 2016. She is joining the Syracuse University iSchool in August 2016. Areas of interest: social network perspective applied to questions about online organizing (notably about online crowds and communities) through social media and online conversation; focus on learning, information exchange, collaboration and knowledge co-construction... Read More →

Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:45 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:45

Session 5D: Participation
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 


Moderators
avatar for Jill Hopke

Jill Hopke

Assistant Professor of Journalism, DePaul University
I am an Assistant Professor of Journalism in the College of Communication at DePaul University in Chicago. My work explores the interface of people, the environment, new technologies and social movements.

Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:45 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

Non-public eParticipation in social media spaces
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Ella Taylor-Smith, Edinburgh Napier University, United Kingdom
  • Colin Smith, Edinburgh Napier University, United Kingdom

This paper focuses on the importance of non-public social media spaces in contemporary democratic participation at the grassroots level, based on case studies of citizen-led, community and activist groups. The research pilots the concept of participation spaces to reify online and offline contexts where people participate in democracy. Participation spaces include social media presences, websites, blogs, email, paper media, and physical spaces. This approach enables the parallel study of diverse spaces (more or less public; on and offline). Participation spaces were investigated across three local groups, through interviews and participant observation; then modelled as Socio-Technical Interaction Networks (STINs) [1]. 
This research provides an alternative and richer picture of social media use, within eParticipation, to studies solely based on public Internet content, such as data sets of tweets. In the participation spaces studies most communication takes place in non-public contexts, such as closed Facebook groups, email, and face-to-face meetings. Non-public social media spaces are particularly effective in supporting collaboration between people from diverse social groups. These spaces can be understood as boundary objects [2] and play strong roles in democracy.  

Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

When status updates become evidence of gang involvement: The prosecutorial affordances of social media use in New York City courtrooms.
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Jeffrey Lane, Rutgers University, United States
  • Fanny Ramirez, Rutgers University, United States 

Background: 

Police departments across the United States have started to use social media for investigative purposes. A recent report from the International Association of Chiefs of Police found that 88.7% of law enforcement agencies use social media for criminal investigations (IACP, 2015). As policing extends online, questions arise about how social media content functions as evidence in criminal court proceedings and what leverage it provides in relation to other forms of evidence.


Objective: 

This paper uses data from seven New York City gang indictments to analyze how the District Attorney’s (DA) office translates communication on social media (e.g., Facebook messages, Tweets, photos on MySpace) by urban youth into acts of gang conspiracy. The goal of this paper is to highlight the affordances of social media as an operational tool for law enforcement and prosecutors.


Methods: 

Indictments in the Criminal Branch of the New York County Supreme Court are typically matters of public record. The seven indictments examined in this paper were collected through the Clerks’ Office or the DA’s office website. Each indictment consists of a series of overt acts - any behavior or action that advances the overall charge of conspiracy. All overt acts were coded by type and content based on the description of the activity in the document.


Results: 

Across the seven indictments, the prosecution alleged a total of 1,281 overt acts of gang conspiracy, 617 (or 48%) of which were acts on social media. Our examination of the indictments led to the identification of six distinct ways in which prosecutors use evidence gleaned from social media to define and prosecute New York City youth gangs: 1) Communication on social media is seen as an active behavior that can be attributed to a defendant 2) Social media content allows prosecutors to establish associations between defendants  3) Social media posts allow prosecutors to redefine cases and charges 4) Social media evidence is used to show that defendants self-identify as gang members 5) Social media content (in the form of photos , status updates, and private messages) is used by the prosecution to tie defendants to particular presentations of the self 6) Social media posts function as time-stamped admissions of guilt. The most over-arching prosecutorial affordance was the conflation of saying and doing. This conflation took two forms. First, because communication took place on social media—where it was visible and persistent—prosecutors treated all communication as action. By communicating over social media, the defendants were alleged to have acted in furtherance of a crime. Second, saying was also doing insofar as the prosecutors weighted social media communication as admissions of guilt. Any communication was taken at face value as a statement that one was going to or had done something.

 

References

International Association of Chief of Police. (2015). 2015 IACP Social Media Survey. [PDF file]. Retrieved from http //www.iacpsocialmedia.org/Resources/Publications.aspx



Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

[CANCELLED] What frustrates you? An empirical analysis of negative emotional consequences of social media use.
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor:
 Dr. Anne Suphan, Hohenheim University, Germany

Background:
Social media allow users to keep and share social information and up-to-date news via pictures, posts, comments and messages. The minority of users are involved on interactive communication (Wise et al., 2010). Most of them consume non-interactive social content. These information, both interactive and non-interactive, are also a basis for social comparison, which in turn produces emotional consequences: positive and negative (Krasnova et al. 2013). Recent studies on social media use focus more and more on the negative outcomes like loneliness, jealousy, frustration and envy (e.g. Krasnova et al. 2013, Burke et al. 2010) and showed that these consequences in turn decreases life satisfaction. However, researchers have not treated the underlying reasons of negative emotional outcomes of social media use empirically in much detail.

Objective:
The aim of this study is to explore the causes of a decrease in mood after using social media. The studies of Sagioglou and Greitemeyer (2014) show that the length of social media use determines negative mood. However, they do not investigate the underlying social content that results in negative outcomes of social comparison. Further, much uncertainty still exists about the relationship between interactive versus non-interactive social media use and emotional consequences. One explanation for that striking research gap – and perhaps the most important challenge of empirical investigations on that question – is caused by the biasof self-reporting measurement in the context of negative emotions.

Methods:
To examine the sources of negative emotional outcomes of social media use 658 under-graduate and graduate participated in an online questionnaire. They were asked how likely they were to experience negative emotions. Students who state that they are likely to feel envious or frustrated were asked for particular reasons (e.g. When on social media Icatch myself envying how much of the world others have seen). On the other side, students who state that they are unlikely to feel envious or frustrated were asked if they could think of reasons (e.g. Many users report feeling frustrated and exhausted after using social media. What do you think cause these feelings? They notice how much of the world others haveseen.) Further, items of motives of social media use and use behaviour were asked.

Results:
Conducting descriptive and multivariate analysis, the results show that (as expectedby social desirability) only the minority of participants state to experience negative emotions after using social media. The results indicate that both envious and not envious users state the notice how successful others are as main cause of envy. In contrast, there are significant differences concerning the explanations of causes of negative outcomes between students who report to feel likely frustrated and those who are unlikely. Those who are frustrated state the waste of time as the most likely reason for the emotional outcome - others state that it is caused by envy. Last but not least, both emotional outcomes and their explanations correlate with motives for using social media and the specific use behaviour – especially people how use social media for social grooming activities are likely to have negative outcomes.

Future Work
:
The research design of this study is a first step to develop measurements in the context of negative emotions that overcome the bias of self-reporting. Further, it should be a first approach for a scale development measuring issues of social content that causes a decrease in negative mood.

References:
  • Burke, M., Marlow, C., & Lento, T. (2010). Social network activity and social well- being. InProceedings of the 28th international conference on Human factors in computing systems.New York, NY: ACM, 1909-1912.
  • Krasnova, H., Wenninger, H., Widjaja, T., & Buxmann, P. (2013). Envy on Facebook : AHidden Threat to Users ’ Life Satisfaction ?, (March), 1–16.
  • Sagioglou, C., & Greitemeyer, T. (2014). Facebook’s emotional consequences: WhyFacebook causes a decrease in mood and why people still use it. Computers in HumanBehavior, 35, 359-363.
  • Wise, K., Alhabash, S., & Park, H. (2010). Emotional responses during social informationseeking on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13, 555–562.

Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

“Not your personal army”: vigilantism as a rhetorical figure among citizens who solve crimes online
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • David Myles, Université de Montréal, Canada
  • Chantal Benoit-Barné, Université de Montréal, Canada
  • Florence Millerand, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada

Background:

The recent increase in the use of the Internet, social media, and surveillance technologies among citizens contributes to redefining the roles of the latter in policing matters. According to some authors, citizens went from being passive consumers of police protection to active public safety co-producers (Bayley and Shearing, 1996; Williamson, 2008). Today, new forms of spontaneous collaboration among citizens in order to solve crimes by using online data and tools have emerged on the Internet (Huey et al., 2013). Researchers in the social sciences and humanities have often conceptualized these citizen initiatives as forms of online vigilantism or "digilantism" (Byrne, 2013). Johnston (1996) defines "vigilantism" as any crime control activities performed by a group of individuals who use or threaten to use force to restore order, and for whom this premeditated and voluntary commitment constitutes an exercise of citizenship. Online vigilantism would rely on a logic of shaming (Williams and Wall, 2007) and revenge (Sharp et al., 2008), and, for some authors, could even constitute a crime comparable to terrorism (Vander Ende, 2014). Yet, these crime-solving practices have seldom been studied empirically (Huey et al., 2013), and few citizens who fight crime online actually identify themselves as vigilantes (Wareham and Chua, 2004). Thus, the relevance of vigilantism used by researchers as a definitional tool to study citizen crime-solving practices should be questioned.

Objective:

To explore whether vigilantism is indeed relevant to the study of citizen crime- solving practices, this research aims to document some of the investigative strategies used by citizens and to understand how these relate to vigilantism.

Methods:

To do so, we studied a Reddit sub-forum entitled Reddit Bureau of Investigation (RBI). With nearly 30,000 members, the RBI’s main objective is to “solve crimes and mysteries”. A non-participant and exploratory observation phase was conducted within 121 discussion threads over a period of two months in 2014 and 2015.

Results:

Our first finding points out that the activities taking place within the RBI have little in common with the vigilante’s characteristics listed above. Indeed, among the investigative strategies that were documented, the use of force, vengeance, and shaming were almost never observed, while often being explicitly condemned. Our second finding points to the frequent mobilization of the "vigilante figure" among RBI members as a rhetorical argument for negative identity construction purposes. While the expressions "not your personal army" and "no witch hunts" were clearly publicized on the RBI homepage, the vigilante figure also transcended investigative and posting practices. Thus, the vigilante figure did not appear relevant as a definitional tool, but rather in its propensity to provide RBI members with a rhetorical object against which they could define who they are (not) and what they do (not).

Future Work:

Rather than applying the vigilante figure in order to define crime solving practices among citizens in a deductive fashion, future research should develop comprehensive models to understand the logic that underlies these specific practices. Future research should also document the collaborative processes on which these online citizen practices rely, as well as how citizens negotiate a criminal investigation ethic through interaction.

References:

Bayley, D. H., & Shearing, C. D. (1996). The future of policing. Law and society review, 585-606.

Byrne, D. N. (2013). 419 Digilantes and the Frontier of Radical Justice Online.Radical History Review, 2013(117), 70-82.

Chua, C. E. H., & Wareham, J. (2004). Fighting internet auction fraud: An assessment and proposal. Computer, 37(10), 31-37.

Huey, L., Nhan, J., & Broll, R. (2012). ‘Uppity civilians’ and ‘cyber-vigilantes’: The role of the general public in policing cyber-crime.Criminology and Criminal Justice, 1748895812448086.

Johnston, L. (1996). What is vigilantism?. British Journal of Criminology, 36(2), 220-236.

Sharp, D., Atherton, S., & Williams, K. (2008). Civilian policing, legitimacy and vigilantism: Findings from three case studies in England and Wales.Policing & Society, 18(3), 245-257.

Wall, D. S., & Williams, M. (2007). Policing diversity in the digital age Maintaining order in virtual communities. Criminology and Criminal Justice,7(4), 391-415.

Williamson, T. (Ed.). (2008). The Handbook of Knowledge Based Policing: Current Conceptions and Future Directions. John Wiley & Sons. 


Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

Mobilizing Affective Political Networks: The Role of Affect in Calls for a National Inquiry to Murdered and Missing Indigenous Women during the 2015 Canadian Federal Election
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Mylynn Felt, University of Calgary, Canada

Indigenous peoples of Canada have been expressing concern over the high rate of murdered and missing women in their communities for a decade. Following the RCMP report which confirmed that Indigenous women are four times more likely to be murdered or kidnapped than other Canadians, these claims intensified into a broad social media campaign calling for a national inquiry into the matter. This campaign uses several hashtags, but primarily one representing murdered and missing Indigenous women (#MMIW). As a result of 2016 federal election campaign promises, Canada’s new Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, has begun the process of the requested national inquiry. This research examines election-related tweets containing #MMIW. This article seeks to interrogate this social media campaign through the lens of affect theory. What role does affect play in collective action claims making? What are the triggers generating affective responses from MMIW advocates during the 2015 Canadian federal election? A mixed-method content analysis reveals that anger, hope, and disgust are the most prominent affects conveyed in this campaign. Emotional triggers focus on incumbent Prime Minister Stephen Harper as an enemy to the cause and on memorial practices and events remembering those lost. Social networks develop cohesion through affective solidarity. The anger, hope, and disgust shared through this political frame convey the movement of activists who realized their hopes for change. 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

Movement Action Repertoires and Social Media – the Case of Migration Aid
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Tibor Dessewffy, Eötvös Loránd University, Faculty of Social Scicences, Hungary
  • Zsófia Nagy, Eötvös Loránd University, Faculty of Social Scicences, Hungary

Background: 

Several attempts in the academic literature aim at giving a complete overview of Internet-related forms of collective action. The ambition of the present paper is to give a close reading of the repertoire of action of our case study, therefore we consider the use of lists and categories that best fit our focus. Our empirical analysis focuses on Migration Aid, a Hungarian Facebook-based social movement that was established with the aim of providing relief aid for refugees who crossed Hungary in considerable numbers during the summer of 2015. The researched period starts with the group’s inception, 29 June and ends on 15 September – the date when the erection of a fence on the Serbian-Hungarian border and a number of legal changes effectively put an end to the group’s operations in Budapest

Objective: Migration Aid, in the course of a few weeks established a hybrid organization operating both on- and offline, with a wide and highly flexible repertoire of action, without a formal hierarchy or leadership. We argue that this complex undertaking and achievement was mainly made possible by what we coin the Social Information Thermostat function of Facebook. The concept of Social Information Thermostat (SIT) refers to the operation of a self-regulative system which permanently receives inputs from given surroundings and changes its outputs accordingly. At the same time SITs themselves are subjects of continuous change and they drive transformation of the broader context as well.

Methods: The study examined 4616 posts shared in the central, closed Facebook-group of Migration Aid from its inception, 29 June until 15 September, 2015. A combination of close reading and content analysis - also borrowing from Fairclough’s three-dimensional model (2001) of critical discourse analysis (CDA) - were used. The close reading led to the identification of central themes in the group’s posts (see Table 1), where the textual unit of one post was considered a unit of analysis.

Results: Our quantitative findings evidence that during a permanent fluctuation of demands and inputs the group effectively reacts with fitting responses and outputs. We also find that the Facebook-group is central in the establishment, maintenance and connection of diagnostic and prognostic action frames. The long-term co-occurrence of these action frames is also evidenced by the findings. Based on our qualitative analysis we discuss five substantial trends made possible by the Social Information Thermostat function: sophisticated crowd-enabled collaboration, the creation of micromedia, the centrality of mobile communication and location-based networking, and open innovation. Facebook also poses limitations on social movements that are shortly discussed as well.

Future Work: We have finished this paper recently and intend to continue to work on Migration Aid and the refugee crises by exploiting the possibilities provided by different digital footprints than Facebook.


Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

Networks of Outrage: Mapping the Emergence of New Extremism in Europe
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Cornelius Puschmann, Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society, Germany
  • Julian Ausserhofer, Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society, Germany
  • Markus Hametner, Der Standard, Austria
  • Noura Maan, Der Standard, Austria

Background:

In the past decade, Europe has witnessed the birth of many right­wing protest movements, such as Pegida and the Identitarian Movement. This interdisciplinary project, jointly conducted by communication scholars and journalists at a leading European daily newspaper, explores the networks and messages that characterize these movements of populist outrage over a period of nine months to better understand their interrelations. It achieves its aim through systematic social media and web data analysis of public communication, combined with expert interviews and on­site research.

Objective:

Our central objective is to map the relations of right­wing movements in Europe with a focus on German­speaking countries. Such movements are characterized by their opposition to immigration, European integration, and perceived ‘islamization’. Their organizational structures have commonalities with grass­roots civic movements and rely strongly on social media for organization and communication. Since summer 2015, their outrage has had significant impact on public discourse in Europe.

The project’s objectives are summarized by three research questions

  1. Howdonewright­wingmovementscommunicatewitheachotherandtheir followers?

  2. Canconnectionsbeidentifiedbetweenthesemovementsandpoliticalparties?

  3. Howistheearly­stagecommunicationofselectedgroupsstructured?Whatare

    factors in their communication that let these groups endure?

Methods:

The project takes place over a period of nine months, with successive stages of data collection, analysis, and presentation in different formats. The project combines multiple methods:

  • Network analysis, to discover relations among actors, relations between actors and media sources, relations between actors and issues (Rogers, 2013),
  • Quantitative (manual) content analysis: We will invest approximately 200 coder hours to code messages, user profiles and websites sampled from the larger volume of material analyzed,
  • Supervised machine learning to extrapolate functional categories from structural properties of messages, profiles, and websites, based on human coding decisions (Grimmer & Stewart, 2013, Scharkow, 2013),
  • On­site research with focus on in­depth interviews with experts and members of the groups and the observation of physical communication infrastructures.

Results:

The products of our research will both be disseminated through the mass media and in scholarly publications. These products will take on the form of interactive networks, statistical data, maps and stories. To­date, we have collected:

  • 150.000 tweets from 50.000 users under the hashtags # pegida and # nopegida, as well as the search term p egida
  • 389 wall posts, 54.000 comments and 180.000 likes from the main Pegida Facebook page.
  • This has been achieved using DMI TCAT for the collection of Twitter data (Borra & Rieder, 2014), and the use of Rfacebook (Barberá, 2015) for Facebook data. We plan to collect further data from these platforms relying on curated lists of accounts, and to also include YouTube and Instagram.

Future Work:

When the conference takes place, our research will have progressed to an intermediate stage, at which we will be able to present early qualitative (e.g. individual cases) and quantitative (macroscopic relations between actors) results. In addition to the outcome of the project as such, we will also be able to report on the collaboration between academic research and journalism on this vital issue at the interface of public communication and scholarly knowledge.

References:

Borra, E., & Rieder, B. (2014). Programmed method: developing a toolset for capturing

and analyzing tweets. A slib Journal of Information Management, 6 6( 3), 262–278.

Grimmer, J., & Stewart, B. M. (2013). Text as data: The promise and pitfalls of automatic content analysis methods for political texts. P olitical Analysis, 2 1( 3), 267–297. doi:10.1093/pan/mps028

Rogers, R. A. (2013). D igital Methods. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Scharkow, M. (2013). Thematic content analysis using supervised machine learning: An empirical evaluation using German online news. Q uality & Quantity, 4 7( 2), 761–773. doi:10.1007/s11135­011­9545­7 


Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

Problematizing the role of social media on Brazilian street protests since 2013

Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Nina Santos, PhD Candidate at Carism/Université Panthéon-Assas

Background:

The biggest protests since the democratization process of Brazil happened in 2013. Millions of citizens went to the streets to fight against the increase of the price of public transportation, but also to demand a higher quality of education and health systems, among other agendas. The FIFA World Cup that took place in the country in 2014 was also a main issue at the time. The lack of protagonism of the traditional social movements that used to mobilize the people to protest was a great issue at the moment. Not only the parties and worker unions were not the one’s organizing the demonstrations, but also the participants had a clear resistance of affiliating with these movements. They preferred a self-organization and anti-political parties discourse. For that, the constant and heavy use of social media was crucial.  

In fact, the 2013 protests in Brazil had some of the main characteristics pointed out by authors to explain this new form that the protest movements are taking: the importance of the individual action on the collective action (Bakardjieva, 2015); the role of the technologies of the self on the shaping of collective identities (Cammaerts, 2014); a more personalized form of participation (Bennet et Segerberg, 2012); the use of social media not only as a communication platform, but also as an organizing device (Kavada, 2003). 

After that, the wave of protests did not cease. After the tight 2014 Presidential Election, the people occupied the streets again, this time with a different political issue: the impeachment of President Dilma Rousseff. But the issue is far from being unanimous among the Brazilian people so, in fact, two different movements started to organize themselves: one pro and one against the impeachment.

We collected data from Facebook pages of the organizers of two massive protests that happened in December 2015. To identify the main organizers of the protest we searched a number of hashtags used during the mobilization and identified the organizations that posted more about the theme. The mobilization that demands Roussef’s deposition was organized mainly by three very recent movements called: Movimento Brasil Livre – MBL (Free Brazil Movement), Revoltados Online (Online Rebels) and Vem Pra Rua (Come to the Street).

On the other hand, the Roussef’s government has the support of a great deal of traditional social movement and worker’s unions in Brazil. We decided to collect data from de Workers Party page (PT), the page of the Unified Workers Union (CUT) and a new front created on 2015 and called Brazilian Popular Front (Frente Brasil Popular). Although the Frente Brasil Popular is a new political grouping, it is formed by very well-known and ancient Brazilian social movements.

Objective:

The main objective of this article is to discuss the use social media by the recent political street protests in Brazil. Our main questions are: what are the similarities and differences between the use of social media by the pro and against impeachment movements in Brazil? How do they relate and or not to the existing political parties and current elected politicians?

Methods:

We work with data collected from Facebook pages related to the protests of December 2015 to identify the uses of social media made by the organizers of the two protests and the way they relate or not to the political parties and the current elected politicians in Brazil. We do that using the affordances and constraints categories proposed by Cammaerts, 2014.

Results:

We identified that the pro impeachment movement used the social media in a much more intense way than the movement against the impeachment. Also, while the "pro movement" focused on disseminating ideas and mobilizing their supporters, the "against movement" had more posts willing to disseminate ideas and to record their actions. While the movement against the impeachment clearly relates to political parties - even if many of the supporters are not identified with these parties -, the movement pro impeachment declares itself nonpartisan and with no relation to parties. However, we did identify posts that quote elected politicians that supported and helped to convoke the pro-impeachment mobilizations. 

Future Work:

This paper is a part of my thesis. My next steps in not only improving the analytical framework by also applying it to a French case of protest to identify similarities and differences.

References:

Bakardjieva, M. (2015). Do clouds have politics? Collective actors in social media land. Information, Communication & Society, (July), 1–8. http://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1043320

Bennett, W. L., & Segerberg, A. (2012). The logic of connective action: Digital media and the personalization of contentious politics. Information, Communication & Society, 15(5), 739–768. http://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2012.670661

Cammaerts, Bart (2014). Technologies of self-mediation: affordances and constraints of social media for protest movements. In: Uldam, Julie and Vestergaard, Anne, (eds.) Civic engagement and social media - political participation beyond the protest. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK.

Kavada, A. (2003). Social Movements and Current Network Research. ... Social Movement Networks’, Corfu, Greece, 1–21. Retrieved from http://nicomedia.math.upatras.gr/conf/CAWM2003/Papers/Kavada.pdf


Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

Audience Brokers and Content Discoverers in the Networked Public Sphere
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Silvia Majo-Vazquez, Internet Interdisciplinary Institute - Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Spain
  • Ana S. Cardenal, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya -Internet Interdisciplinary Institute, Spain
  • Oleguer Sagarra Pascual, Complex Systems Group, Física Fonamental - University of Barcelona, Spain
  • Pol Colomer de Simón, Complex Systems Group, Física Fonamental - University of Barcelona, Spain

Background:

Social platforms such as Facebook or Twitter as well as news aggregators and blogs are changing the way people consume news online. Citizens are less willing to search political content directly from branded websites (N. Newman, Levy, & Nielsen, 2015) yet they increasingly relay on their news feeds to bump into political information. Much has been discussed about the potential and the consequences of the mediatization role of these new players (Gitlin, 2002; Napoli, 2008; Pariser, 2011; Prior, 2008; Sunstein, 2009; Turow, 1998) but little empirical evidence has been brought so far. The purpose of this study is to offer some redress to the situation by analyzing the role of new media building on the network of news audience and the news providers. 

Objective: 


Our study seeks to empirically assess the potential of new media as audience distributors and content discoverers. We want to know whether they promote audience flow and hence, they help to avoid the balkanization of the web (Sunstein, 2009). Our hypothesis falls in line with theoretical accounts contending that audiences do not form enclaves in the online domain but they share a public realm (Garrett & Resnick, 2011; Gentzkow & Shapiro, 2011; Webster & Ksiazek, 2012).

Methods: 


We make explicit the concept of the online public domain by building two networks: the network of audience and the network of online news providers. The former comes from a sample of 113 news media, new and traditional outlets in Spain and represents the audience that each pair of news providers sent to each other (Webster & Ksiazek, 2012). The network of online news providers is built using a hyperlink crawling (Ackland, 2013) starting from a list of 44 seed sites corresponding to the most visited news media outlets. We test the role of new media as audience brokers (Gould & Fernandez, 1989). We use the random-walk betweenness centrality (Newman, 2005) -which counts not only the shortest paths but all paths between two nodes- to test the influence of a node over the spread of audience. Finally, we assess the potential of new media to discover authoritative news sources following the empirical framework proposed by Kleinberg, (1999). 

Results: 


Using second order methods in network science (Borge-Holthoefer & Gonzalez-Bailon, 2015), we aim to bring evidence on firstly, that new media provides shortcuts that decrease significantly the number of hops that audience must take to explore a broader range of news content; secondly, that they have the potential to diversify news media diets by discovering new sources of information. In our study we also shed light on the role of legacy media as authorities in the online domain.  

Future Work: 


Despite the access to news is still dominated by television, people increasingly access media content just login into their social media platforms and visiting feeds readers. This is an increasingly common habit in US, Ireland and Australia (N. Newman et al., 2015). Hence, in future research we aim to enhance the present analysis focused on Spain by bringing a comparative perspective based on theses countries. 

References:

Ackland, R. (2013). Web Social Science Concepts, Data and Tools for Social Scientists in the Digital Age (1st ed.). London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Borge-Holthoefer, J., & Gonzalez-Bailon, S. (2015). Scale, Time, and Activity Patterns: Advanced Methods for the Analysis of Online Networks. In N. Fielding, R. Lee, & G. Blank (Eds.), Handbook of Online Research Methods (Second). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2686703

Garrett, R. K., & Resnick, P. (2011). Resisting political fragmentation on the Internet. Daedalus, 140(4), 108–120.

Gentzkow, M., & Shapiro, J. M. (2011). Ideological Segregation Online and Offline. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 126(4), 1799–1839. http://doi.org/10.1093/qje/qjr044

Gitlin, T. (2002). Public sphere or public sphericules? In J. Curran & T. Liebes (Eds.), Media, ritual and identity (p. 168). Routledge.

Gould, R. V, & Fernandez, R. M. (1989). Formal Approach to Brokerage in Transaction Networks. Sociological Methodology, 19, 89–126.

Kleinberg, J. M. (1999). Authoritative sources in a hyperlinked environment. Journal of the ACM (JACM), 46(5), 604–632.

Napoli, P. M. (2008). Toward a model of audience evolution: New Tecnologies and the Transformation of Media Audiences (No. 15). Retrieved from http://fordham.bepress.com/mcgannon_working_papers/15

Newman, M. E. J. (2005). A measure of betweenness centrality based on random walks. Social Networks, 27(1), 39–54.

Newman, N., Levy, D. A., & Nielsen, R. K. (2015). Reuters Institute Digital News. Report 2015. Tracking the future of news. Retrieved from https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2015_Full Report.pdf

Pariser, E. (2011). The filter bubble: How the new personalized web is changing what we read and how we think. Penguin.

Prior, M. (2008). Are hyperlinks “weak ties”? In J. Turow & L. Tsui (Eds.), The hyperlinked society: questioning connections in the Digital Age (pp. 227–249). University of Michigan Press Ann Arbor, MI.

Sunstein, C. R. (2009). Republic. com 2.0 (second). Princeton University Press.
Turow, J. (1998). Breaking up America: Advertisers and the new media world. University of Chicago Press.

Webster, J. G., & Ksiazek, T. B. (2012). The Dynamics of Audience Fragmentation: Public Attention in an Age of Digital Media. Journal of Communication, 62(1), 39–56. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01616.x 


Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

Insiders or outsiders? The hidden network of sustaining online community
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Joyce Lee, Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan
  • Shu-Fen Tseng, Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan
  • Chih-Yao Chang, Dharma Drum Institute of Liberal Arts, Taiwan
  • K. Robert Lai, Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan
  • Shih-Yun Chen, Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan
  • Lu Shi, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, CHina

Background: 

The explosion of social media has changed the ways people communicate and interact. In particular, online communities have enabled people to find the others with common interests, passions, or problems over the Internet, and subsequently to share information, feelings as well give mutual supports. By doing so, online communities can be significantly valuable to the people who use them and hence become a great benefit to society which is regarded as important social capital across multiple dimensions. Despite their increasing value to the society, researchers have noticed that relatively few of them are successful in attracting community members and enhancing interactivity (Phang et al., 2009). To tackle this challenge, we argue that it is necessary to have an in-depth understanding regarding online participation in the communal contexts.

Objective: 

From the perspective of online community sustainability, prior researchers have involved investigating the participation roles along with their particular behaviour (e.g. Preece & Schneiderman, 2009) so that their influences in user interactivities in communities can be understood. Whilst these researchers have shed significant light on this domain, the participation patterns pertaining to both the participation roles and the content of message that constantly intertwine in sustaining community activities have received little attention. We argue that in online communities especially those with particular purposes, the content of posts is one of the drivers of user participation in conversations or discussions, and that consequentially leads to different typologies of content networks to emerge (Kane et al., 2014) as well as facilitating networked communication and user interactivities (van Varik & van Oostendorp, 2013).This is important, because people in an online community are not only connected to other people, for they are also connected to the content, which can be connected to other content (Oestricher-Singer & Zalmanson, 2013). This study, by drawing upon the theory of online participation, aims to understand participation patterns consist of roles and content emerged in the community contexts and thereby increasing the value of online knowledge sharing.

Methods: 

For this research, a mixed method of social network analysis with both qualitative and quantitative strategies has been undertaken on the discussion forum URcar (a pseudonym). Specifically, the discussion topic about the vehicle model Nissan Cefiro entitled “Cefiro’s owners, please come to sign here” is selected as the main case study (not least) for it being the longest car-related discussion, for the period February 2007 to November 2015 (lasting for nine years and still active) and thus can be considered as an online community with sustainability. The development of this long-lasting discussion topic offers a great opportunity for the study of the users’ dynamic behaviour in a communal context.

Results: 

The findings reveal that: first, in online communities with an open conversation space, an individual can participate in a central role in some circumstances, but in a peripheral way in others. Thus, we argue that participation roles are not a signature of the person but a contextual behaviour that has its distinctive social meanings. Second, by exploring the actor-content networks, we found that the “main channels” within which some participants discussed the issues directly related to the car model and the “side channels” within which participants developed their social relationships by talking about something else. In fact, the co-existence of main and side channels led the community being active.

Future Work: 

In this research, we redefine the meaning of community contribution. Specifically, through reinterpretation of centrality and de-centrality in networks, we have uncovered the hidden influences which contribute the community in knowledge sharing. That is, by considering the message content as well as the role of offline communication alongside the online form, we have identified some people who have a strong impact on maintaining online community sustainability, despite their lack of posting. In order to reach a rigour level of research, more cases are studied continuously.

References:

Kane, G., Alavi, M., Labianca, G. J. and Borgatti, S. P. (2014). What's different about social media networks? A framework and research agenda. MIS Quarterly, 38, 275-304.

Oestricher-Singer, G. and Zalmanson, L. (2013). Content or Community? A Digital Business Strategy for Content Providers in The Social Age. MIS Quarterly, 37, 591-616.

Phang, C. W., Kankanhalli, A. and Sabherwal, R. (2009). Usability and Sociability in Online Communities: A Comparative Study of Knowledge Seeking and Contribution. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 10, 721-747.

Preece, J. and Schneiderman, B. (2009). The Reader-to-Leader Framework: Motivating Technology-Meditated Social Participation. AIS Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction, 1, 13-32.

van Varik, F. J. M. and van Oostendorp, H. (2013). Enhacning Online Community Activity: Development and validation of the CA framework. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 18, 454-475.



Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

One Day in the Life of a National Twittersphere
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Axel Bruns, Queensland University of Technology, Australia
  • Brenda Moon, Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Background: 

Much of the existing research into the uses of social media platforms focusses on the exceptional: key moments in politics (e.g. Larsson & Moe, 2014; Sauter & Bruns, 2015, Papacharissi & Blasiola, 2016), sports (e.g. Blaszka et al., 2012; Highfield, 2014), brand management (e.g. Krüger et al., 2012; Nitins & Burgess, 2014), or crisis communication (e.g. Mendoza et al., 2010; Palen et al., 2010; Shaw et al., 2013). For the case of Twitter, because of the way that the Twitter API privileges certain data gathering approaches, such work is usually centred on one or more hashtags or keywords (Burgess & Bruns, 2015). This line of inquiry has produced many useful insights into the uses of Twitter – as documented for example in the collection Hashtag Publics (Rambukkana, 2015) – but arguably it covers only one subset of the various uses of the platform. Routine and everyday social media practices remain comparatively underexamined as a result; for Twitter, therefore, what results is an overrepresentation in the literature of the loudest voices – those users who contribute actively to popular hashtags.

Objective: 

This paper presents progress results from a major new study that examines user activity patterns on Twitter well beyond limited hashtag collections, drawing on a comprehensive dataset that tracks the public activities of all Twitter accounts identified by their profile information as Australian. Building on this cohort (currently containing some 2.8 million accounts), we have already mapped the follower/followee relationships within the Australian Twittersphere (Bruns et al., 2014) to identify the clustering patterns that influence – arguably more so than the use of hashtags – how information flows between users. We have also identified the thematic drivers of cluster formation in the network, and have mapped participation in specific Twitter conversations across these clusters.

The paper builds on this earlier work by exploring in depth the day-to-day patterns of activity within the Australian Twittersphere, for a selection of several 24-hour periods during 2015. This provides a unique new insight into how, across an entire national Twittersphere, conversations between users unfold through the day, and documents the extent to which such interactions are guided by existing follower relationships, hashtags, or other contextual markers. Inter alia, our analysis will show which parts of the network are consistently active across all periods, and which are triggered by the events of the day; which are more focussed on publishing new content (through original tweets), on interpersonal conversation (through @mentions), or on news dissemination (through retweets); and which are influential across the network, or remain largely within their own clusters. What is revealed through this work is a largely hidden side of Twitter away from the prominent hashtags.

Methods: 

Our comprehensive dataset of the public tweets by some 2.8 million identified Australian accounts enables filtering by the timestamps of tweets. We select several 24-hour periods across 2015 (averaging between 900,000 and 1 million tweets per day), to capture all tweets by Australian users during these days; we then extract from the tweet text any @mentions and retweets of other users, and generate a network map of their interactions to examine the processes of interpersonal engagement between these accounts. In doing so, we determine the properties of this network (and how they change through the course of the day), and examine the extent to which @mention or retweet engagement is a feature of overall activity in the Australian Twittersphere at any one point (that is, to what extent users are simply tweeting undirected personal statements, talk with each other through @mentions, or share other accounts’ posts through retweets). We also correlate this with the network clusters we have already identified in the follower network, to explore whether specific practices (posting, @mentioning, retweeting) are more prevalent in particular clusters of the network.

Results: 

The outcomes from this study provide new insights into the dynamics of Twitter engagement well beyond well-understood phenomena such as hashtags. They shed new light on how everyday users utilise Twitter, and document the degree of diversity of the personal networks they actively engage with.

Future Work: 

We focus here in the first place on the documentation of comparatively ordinary days in the Australian Twittersphere. Future work will compare such patterns with extraordinary periods (such as major political, media, or sporting events), to explore how and to what extent the routine patterns of Twitter engagement change as breaking news disrupts users’ activities. Additionally, the network analysis presented here will also be combined with automated textual analysis, to examine whether changes in activity patterns through the day are correlated with thematic shifts in the content of the tweets.

References:

Blaszka, M., Burch, L.M., Frederick, E.L., Clavio, G., & Walsh, P. (2012). #WorldSeries: An Empirical Examination of a Twitter Hashtag during a Major Sporting Event. International Journal of Sport Communication5(4): 435-453.

Bruns, A., Burgess, J., & Highfield, T. (2014). A “Big Data” Approach to Mapping the Australian Twittersphere. In P.L. Arthur & K. Bode (Eds.), Advancing Digital Humanities: Research, Methods, Theories (pp. 113–129). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

Burgess, J., & Bruns, A. (2015). Easy Data, Hard Data: The Politics and Pragmatics of Twitter Research after the Computational Turn. In G. Langlois, J. Redden, & G. Elmer (Eds.), Compromised Data: From Social Media to Big Data (pp. 93–111). New York: Bloomsbury Academic.

Highfield, T. (2014). Following the Yellow Jersey: Tweeting the Tour de France. In K. Weller et al., (Eds.), Twitter and Society (pp. 249-262). New York: Peter Lang.

Krüger, N., Stieglitz, S., & Potthoff, T. (2012). Brand Communication in Twitter: A Case Study on Adidas. In PACIS 2012 Proceedings (paper 161). Retrieved from http://aisel.aisnet.org/pacis2012/161.

Larsson, A.O., & Moe, H. (2014). Twitter in Politics and Elections: Insights from Scandinavia. In K. Weller et al., (Eds.), Twitter and Society (pp. 319-330). New York: Peter Lang.

Mendoza, M., Poblete, B., & Castillo, C. (2010). Twitter under Crisis: Can We Trust What We RT? In Proceedings of the First Workshop on Social Media Analytics (SOMA ’10) (pp. 71-79). Retrieved from http://snap.stanford.edu/soma2010/papers/soma2010_11.pdf.

Nitins, T., & Burgess, J. (2014). Twitter, Brands, and User Engagement. In K. Weller et al., (Eds.), Twitter and Society (pp. 293-303). New York: Peter Lang.

Palen, l., Starbird, K., Vieweg, S., & Hughes, A. (2010). Twitter-Based Information Distribution during the 2009 Red River Valley Flood Threat. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 36(5): 13-17.

Rambukkana, N. (Ed.). (2015). Hashtag Publics: The Power and Politics of Discursive Networks. New York: Peter Lang.

Papacharissi, Z., & Blasiola, S. (2016). Structures of Feeling, Storytelling, and Social Media: The Case of #Egypt. In Bruns et al. (Eds.), The Routledge Companion to Social Media and Politics (pp. 211-222). London: Routledge.

Sauter, T., & Bruns, A. (2015). #auspol: The Hashtag as Community, Event, and Material Object for Engaging with Australian Politics. In N. Rambukkana (Ed.), Hashtag Publics: The Power and Politics of Discursive Networks (pp. 47–60). New York: Peter Lang.

Shaw, F., Burgess, J., Crawford, K., & Bruns, A. (2013). Sharing News, Making Sense, Saying Thanks: Patterns of Talk on Twitter during the Queensland Floods. Australian Journal of Communication, 40(1), 23-39. Retrieved from http://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=430834117446976;res=IELHSS.



Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

Social Network Structure of Online Communities: Social Movement Activists, Professionals and Fans on VK.com SNS
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Yuri Rykov, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation

Background:

Becoming Web 2.0 era (O'Reilly, 2005) associated with the popularization of social network sites (SNS) updates the sociological debate over the concept of online communities that exist on these platforms (Cavanagh, 2009). These online communities are used for very different purposes: to find likeminded others, for professional knowledge sharing, organizing protest events and other civil society activity, education, in public health, etc. SNS-based online communities relating to social groups from various spheres of social life probably differ from each other by participant's networking and communication behavior. The structure and users' interaction patterns within online communities vary depending on the platform technical features, temporal structure, external contexts (e.g. language), participants characteristics and group purposes (Baym, 1998; Preece, 2001; Gonzalez-Bailon, Kaltenbrunner, & Banchs, 2010). Recent research devoted to study of discussion communities in Twitter shows there is a relation between structural patterns of discussion networks and subjects of communication (Smith, Rainie, Shneiderman, & Himelboim, 2014). Therefore, the study of communities' functioning and structure in comparative perspective is of interest. 
In this particular research we focus on online communities form different spheres of social life and with different purposes respectively: fan communities, professional communities, social movement communities. 

Objective:

The research question is what are the differences between 'friendship' networks of these three types of online communities. The answer shed light on how purposes of online communities determine forms of connectivity and collective behavior within. 

Methods: 

An empirical object are online groups in the most popular Russian SNS VK.com. Sample includes 55 groups (vary in size from 5,000 to 34,000 users) equally corresponding to three exploring types of communities: fan communities (e.g. musicians fans), professional communities (e.g. IT specialists, engineers) and social movement communities (e.g. urban, LGBT movements). 
The data was available through API and was collected automatically by special software. Each group dataset includes: 1) complete data from group's 'wall' and discussion boards including users' activity stats; 2) the metadata of all participants (gender, age, location, etc); 3) the data on 'friend' relationships existing among community participants. 
Nodes in the network are users participating in online groups. Ties are 'friend' relationships between them. To analyze data we use social network analysis methods and statistics (linear models, ANOVA). 

Results: 

Fan networks have lower density and are less filled with ties, comparing to other groups. Fan networks have significantly more connected components and graph clusters, a higher value of Gini index for betweenness centrality distribution, indicating a greater fragmentation of fan communities compared with other. It means participants are less likely to use fan groups to networking with like-minded individuals and form a social capital. 
Professional communities have the largest share of posting users and lowest Gini index for posted messages distribution that indicates more participatory behaviour of users in content creation and knowledge sharing. Despite the wide participation professional networks stay highly fragmented and clustered that is caused by the highest betweenness centralization. 
Social movement networks are the most dense and the most internally connected, comparing to others, because the collective action require the cooperation between participants. Despite solidarity and cohesion these networks are the most centralized and unequal by degree centrality. Thus, online communities are used by movement activists to accumulate group-level social capital, but larger inequality emerges on the individual-level social capital. 

Future Work: 

We are going to continue statistical analysis to obtain more results. Also we are planning to conduct a content analysis of these groups using topic modelling approach and techniques. 

References: 

Baym, N. K. (1998). The Emergence of On-Line Community. In S. G. Jones (Ed.), Cybersociety 2.0: Revisiting Computer-Mediated Communication and Community (pp. 35–68). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. 
Cavanagh, A. (2009). From Culture to Connection: Internet Community Studies. Sociology Compass, 3(1), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9020.2008.00186.x 
Gonzalez-Bailon, S., Kaltenbrunner, A., & Banchs, R. E. (2010). The structure of political discussion networks: a model for the analysis of online deliberation. Journal of Information Technology, 25(2), 230–243. http://doi.org/10.1057/jit.2010.2 
O’Reilly, T. (2005, September 30). What is Web 2.0. Design patterns and business models for the next generation of software. Retrieved from http://www.oreilly.com/pub/a/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html. 
Preece, J. (2001). Sociability and usability in online communities: Determining and measuring success. Behaviour & Information Technology, 20(5), 347–356. http://doi.org/10.1080/01449290110084683 
Smith, M. A., Rainie, L., Shneiderman, B., & Himelboim, I. (2014, February 20). Mapping twitter topic networks: From polarized crowds to community clusters. Pew Research Internet Project. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/02/20/part-2-conversational-archetypes-six-conversation-and-group-network-structures-in-twitter/ 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

Choice shaping in Social Media: An Evolutionary perspective
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Gabriela Morales, The University of Sheffield

Introduction

The information people choose (in the form of opinions, advice or ideas) determines to a great extent the knowledge they acquire (Barthelme, Ermine, & Rosenthal-Sabroux, 1998; Nonaka, 1994). However, in order to forego the costs of individual learning, people have evolved to acquire knowledge through social learning processes like teaching, language and imitation (Mesoudi, 2011). Specifically, some evolutionary scholars have focused on three biases that take place when grouped individuals interact: they tend to conform to the beliefs of the group (frequency-based); they tend to imitate the ideas of powerful or alike individuals (model-based); or they simply select information that is perceived as having more benefits compared to the other options (content-based), (Mesoudi, 2011; Richerson & Boyd, 2005).

These biases tend to happen whenever people are grouped, but never before have we seen as many individuals interacting as we do now. With almost half of the world’s population making use of the internet (Internet Live Stats, 2015) and given the amount of information that is being shared and received by users, online communities have had to implement different structures that simplify the sharing of information. However, at the same time that these structures simplify and tailor the information we need, they also make us prone to obtaining information that is biased (Kahneman, 2003; Tversky & Kahneman, 1981). These structures affect: the amount of information allowed to be transmitted to other users (maximum or minimum characters allowed per ‘post’), the type of information that can be used (for instance, text, images, or video), the reach within the whole online community (i.e., some opinions are shared only within a selected group of acquaintances while others are meant to be seen by any online user), and the level of conformity towards an idea shared by someone in the network (by making use of different rating-scales).

Objective

The main aim of this research will be to analyse how these different structures might bias the information people receive, and to determine which biases have a greater impact at the moment an individual is choosing from available opinions, advice or ideas. To achieve this, the current research done in social media was structured around the three group-biases (content, model, and frequency-based). The literature review showed that research has already being performed regarding what makes information attractive to others in terms of its content (Cheng & Ho, 2015; Cheung & Thadani, 2012; Jalilvand, Esfahani, & Samiei, 2011; Liu & Park, 2015; Park & Nicolau, 2015), and also in terms of online power or expertise (Iyengar, Van den Bulte, & Valente, 2011; Jacobsen, 2015; Litvin, Goldsmith, & Pan, 2008; Wu, Hofman, Mason, & Watts, 2011). However few studies have addressed the topic of conformity in online networks (Tsao, Hsieh, Shih, & Lin, 2015). Particularly, the differentiation between the personal and the total social network has been under-studied (Jiang, Ma, Shang, & Chau, 2014; Luo & Zhong, 2015). Moreover, although some research has also been performed regarding the comparison of rating-scales in online environments (Riedl, Blohm, Leimeister, & Krcmar, 2010, 2013), these studies have not differentiated personal networks within the online platforms. 

Therefore, to address these gaps, the present study explores the following research questions: Which are the biases that mostly affect online choices? How strongly does conformity affect the choices in social media? Do people conform differently to the total-network than to their online personal-networks? Does the selection of information from someone’s personal network get affected by two different rating- systems?

Methods

To target the research questions, the study will adopt a quasi-experimental approach, and the data gathered will be both quantitative and qualitative, and longitudinal in nature. The quasi-experiment will consist of three years of data generated within an online educational website (PeerWise) where the participants will be (non-randomly allocated) undergraduate students of a particular module in the University of Sheffield. This module currently uses PeerWise throughout the semester, where students use it “to create [multiple choice questions] and to explain their understanding of course-related assessment questions and to answer and discuss questions created by their peers" (PeerWise, 2015).

The study will encompass three years of data: [1] The first year will have the characteristic that Peerwise users will be able to choose their usernames1 and rate2 each other’s questions from 0 to 5. [2] In the second year the change that will take place is that anonymity will be removed. This is, all students will be signed-in with their first and last names3, while the rating-scale continue to be 0 to 5. [3] Finally, during the third year students will continue to be logged-in with their first and last names, and the change will be that the rating scale will go from 0-5 to 0-1 (similar to a ‘like/dislike’).

Each year of the quasi-experiment will have 350 students (approx.) which will generate around 54,000 interactions4. This data will be analysed using statistical methods5. Moreover, at the end of each semester students will be asked to complete a questionnaire where their personal networks (within the group) will be mapped. The data from the questionnaire will then be compared with the way users interacted in PeerWise, using social network 6and sequence7 analyses. Finally, yearly focus groups will be used to get additional qualitative data that helps the researcher better understand the opinions and feelings of participants regarding the presence of their personal networks in online environments and the use of a particular rating scale. 

Results

Theoretically, this research will add value by addressing the previously outlined research questions. Empirically, the research will create value by performing a real-life quasi-experiment which will enable to study conformity to personal-networks and comparison of online rating-scales with a novel methodology. Regarding practice and policy, it will help to better understand the application of social media to education, by studying which structures better enable students to obtain information and retain knowledge.

Future Work

This study is part of an ongoing Ph.D. At the time of the conference the researcher will be performing the first between-group comparison, and will therefore be able to comment on some of the preliminary results.

REFERENCES

Barthelme, F., Ermine, J.-L., & Rosenthal-Sabroux, C. (1998). An architecture for knowledge evolution in organisations. European Journal of Operational Research, 109, 414–427. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(98)00067-8

Cheng, Y., & Ho, H. (2015). Social influence’s impact on reader perceptions of online reviews. Journal of Business Research, 68(4), 883–887. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2014.11.046

Cheung, C. M. K., & Thadani, D. R. (2012). The impact of electronic word-of-mouth communication: A literature analysis and integrative model. Decision Support Systems, 54(1), 461–470. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2012.06.008

Elzinga, C. H., & Studer, M. (2015). Spell Sequences, State Proximities, and Distance Metrics. Sociological Methods & Research, 44(1), 3–47. http://doi.org/10.1177/0049124114540707
Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360. http://doi.org/10.1086/225469

Internet Live Stats. (2015). Internet Users. Retrieved May 18, 2015, from http://www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users/

Iyengar, R., Van den Bulte, C., & Valente, T. W. (2011). Opinion Leadership and Social Contagion in New Product Diffusion. Marketing Science, 30(2), 195–212. http://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.1100.0566

Jackson, M. O. (2008). Social and economic networks. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Jacobsen, G. D. (2015). Consumers, experts, and online product evaluations: Evidence from the brewing industry. Journal of Public Economics, 126, 114–123. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2015.04.005

Jalilvand, M. R., Esfahani, S. S., & Samiei, N. (2011). Electronic word-of-mouth: Challenges and opportunities. Procedia Computer Science, 3, 42–46. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2010.12.008 

Jiang, G., Ma, F., Shang, J., & Chau, P. Y. K. (2014). Evolution of knowledge sharing behavior insocial commerce: An agent-based computational approach. Information Sciences, 278, 250–266.http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ins.2014.03.051

Kahneman, D. (2003). A Perspective on Judgment and Choice: Mapping Bounded Rationality. American Psychologist, 58(9), 697–720. http://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.58.9.697

Litvin, S. W., Goldsmith, R. E., & Pan, B. (2008). Electronic word-of-mouth in hospitality and tourism management. Tourism Management, 29(3), 458–468. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.05.011

Liu, Z., & Park, S. (2015). What makes a useful online review? Implic…


Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

Click Here: 'Slacktivism' and the Question of Commitment
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Chandell Gosse, Western University, Canada
  • Anabel Quan Haase, Western University, Canada
  • Alyssa MacDougall, Western University, Canada

Background: This project examines the popular term “slacktivism” through an investigation of social media users’ participation in social movements online and offline. Ensuring the success of social movements is an impossible task because their success, i.e., social or political change that occurs as a result of organized efforts to do so, rests on a complex matrix of conditions (e.g., social, economic, political, personal, economic, geographical, etc.). A key feature known to be effective, at least, involves perseverance and long-term commitment (Corrigall-Brown 2011). The growth of social media as a popular communication platform for the awareness and organization of many social movements, called here social and political online campaigns (SPOCs), has led to widespread debate over the merits of its use in relation to such perseverance by dismissing involvement as “slacktivism” or simply a “feel good measure.” Beyond the campaign’s number of likes, posts, tweets, and monetary donations, however, there is little empirical data on which to form an opinion. Understanding the new shift from offline to online communication within social movements and their related SPOCs requires knowing more than simply how many people participated, or how popular the campaign appeared to be. As such, our project asks whether participation in social and political online campaigns is a determinate factor for participation outside of a social media context. 

Objective: Given the emphasis on long-term commitment, and the short-shelf life of many online campaigns, our project seeks to understand whether individuals who participate in SPOCs continue to support the causes behind the campaigns outside of the social media sphere. Our project has two objectives: first, to determine whether SPOCs mobilize action outside the sphere of social media; and second, to determine whether such action continues after the campaigns recede from social media spotlight. Our central argument states that even though participation occurs by a few highly engaged individuals, the long tail of participation—that is, the moderately engaged majority—still comprises a significant portion of total engagement. We rely on Anderson’s (2006) theory of the long tail to better understand the phenomenon of engagement in viral campaigns. 

Methods: This research comes at a crucial time; as technology continues to evolve and the ubiquity of social media as a primary form of communication increases, it is important to understand how people from all walks of life engage with online activism. Our project draws from participants’ responses to surveys advertised on the social networking sites Reddit, Twitter, and Facebook. The survey is comprised of open-ended and close-ended questions and is available to anyone over the age of eighteen. 

Results: The online survey (found here: https://goo.gl/AmQiMM) will remain active until March 2016. The results from this survey are expected to provide insight into four main areas of interest: a) why social media users’ choose to participate in SPOCs and what that participation consists of; b) whether social media users’ learn about issues pertaining to the SPOCs they participate in outside of the social media context, and if so, what the breadth of that knowledge is; c) what information or knowledge users’ feel they gained from participating in SPOCs; and d) whether users’ develop a commitment to the cause outside of social media.  

Future Work: The research presented here represents the first stage of a larger project. This stage aims to quantify whether social media users, who participated in SPOCs, participated or supported the campaign outside of social media. The next stage of this project will address related questions using a qualitative approach. The significance of our study lies in providing a better understanding of the effectiveness of these viral campaigns. Since many private and public companies, non-government organizations, health care initiatives and advocacy groups, to name a few, invest enormous amounts of time and resources into creating and disseminating these campaigns, we think that understanding how effective they are beyond their “15 minutes of fame” could help maximize the successfulness of the campaign’s goal(s) (and ultimately, effect change). 

References: 
Anderson, C. (2006). The long tail: Why the future of business is selling less of more. New York, NY: Hyperion. 
Corrigall-Brown, C. (2011). Patterns of protest: Trajectories of participation in social movements. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.  

Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

Identifying the Influencers who Flooded Twitter during the #ALSicebucketchallenge
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Kelli Burns, University of South Florida, United States

Background: 

Perhaps no other campaign has reached greater success in terms of participation, donations, social media chatter, and attention in popular culture than the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge. This campaign was truly a grassroots effort, fueled by friends of an ALS victim and then spread on social media by millions of participants ranging from average citizens to celebrities. Significant coverage by traditional media and participation by personalities on television further accelerated awareness of the campaign and the cause. On Twitter, many celebrities also shared their involvement in the campaign and spurred conversation and engagement among other Twitter users. 

Objective: 

This study sought to understand the impact of influencers in spreading discussion of the ALS Ice Bucket Challenge campaign on Twitter. This study examined the top accounts for retweets and mentions; the correlation between the most followed, most retweeted, and most mentioned users; and the network structure of the conversation. Finally, the conversation was examined to see whether it was "on message."

Methods: 

A historical data grant from Texifter provided access to almost 550,000 tweets and enterprise access to DiscoverText, a “cloud-based, collaborative text analytics solution.” Tweets were selected based on the criteria of inclusion of the hashtags of #alsicebucketchallenge or #icebucketchallenge and use of the English language during the period of August 18-22, 2014. Of the millions of English-language tweets during this timeframe using these hashtags, 15 percent of the tweets were randomly selected for inclusion in the sample, resulting in a sample size of 545,563 tweets. 

Results: 

Analysis of the more than 500,000 tweets determined the top influencers in terms of mentions and retweets and also explored correlation between the most followed users, the most retweeted, and the most mentioned, finding a moderate correlation between the most retweeted and mentioned. T2G 0.3 for Python was used to extract all edges from tweets with multiple mentions from a sample of 1,000 tweets, resulting in 1,457 edges to be analyzed in NodeXL. Plotting the data using the Fruchterman-Reingold algorithm resulted in large nodes (representing the vertex in-degree metric) for certain celebrities and close relationships for others. The vertices were grouped by cluster using the Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm and further examined. This study also modeled a larger sample of the dataset using Gephi and D3. Finally, although ALS was mentioned in a larger percentage of tweets, variations of the word donate were mentioned much less frequently.

Future Work: 

The implications of this study would be relevant to other activist Twitter campaigns that mobilize celebrity influencers. 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

13:46

Social Resources Affecting Participation of Social Media Users in Poland
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Kamil Filipek, University of Warsaw, Poland

Introduction 

Nowadays, much of the public activities and behaviors can be found in social media. Social media became a tool enabling access, delivery, exchange and mobilization of resources embedded in personal networks. Whereas, the impact of such resources on instrumental and expressive actions is well documented in the literature (Lin 2001, Finsveen and van Oorschot 2008), the role of social media in facilitating/blocking different types of resources that may have na impact on the individual's actions remains little studied (Steinfield, Ellison, and Lampe 2008, Ellison et al. 2014). This research focus on the relationship between social media, individual social capital, and patterns of the political participation among Polish citizens.

 

Theory of social resources

The theory of social resources proposed by Lin (Lin, Vaughn, and Ensel 1981; Lin 1999; Lin 2001)⁠ makes explicit the assumption that resources embedded in personal networks have an impact on individual actions and can lead to better socioeconomic status (Lin 1999)⁠. He operationalized social capital at the individual level as 'a social asset by virtue of actors’ connections and access to resources in the network or group of which they are members' (Lin 2001). Such resources include symbolic and material goods that make up the social capital (Bourdieu 1986). To distinguish resources owned by others from private resources belonging to an individual, Lin introduced a term 'personal resources'. By personal resources he means “resources possessed by an individual [that] may include ownership of material as well as symbolic goods (e.g., diplomas and degrees)” (Lin 2001).

This research focus on social resources owned by individuals belonging to the respondent's personal network. Based on previous research with the Resource Generator tool (Webber, Huxley, & Harris 2011; Batorski, Bojanowski, & Filipek, 2015), it is assumed here that only some resources could be mobilized in a purposive action. In other words, relatives, friends and acquaintances may possess certain resources, but individuals are not able to use them when acting in various social contexts.

Thus, the main goal of this research is to find out whether and how resources embedded in personal networks (family, friends, acquaintances) influence the political participation of social media users. The following research questions are pursued:

- Do embedded and/or mobilizable resources in personal networks affect the political participiation of respondents?

- What is the impact of resources on respondents' activities selected in this research as indicators of the political participation?

- Whose resources, namely family, friends, acquaintances or respondents have an impact (positive or negative) on the political participation?

 

Methods: 

The core of the measuring tool is based on the Resource Generator (RG) (Van Der Gaag and Snijders 2005). Items included in the RG are the major independent variables. The RG items refer to the four types of resources (i.e. support, knowledge, recommendation, and material resources) embedded and mobilized through personal networks, that may have an impact on the individual's participation.

The dependent variable is represented by five items (5-point Likert scales) reflecting the respondents' political participation. Those items include (1) voting in elections, (2) signing petitions, (3) joining protests, (4) personal contacts with politicians, (5) local community meetings.

The data has been collected through the online questionnaire among individuals registered at the online research platform delivered by external partner. The research has been conducted in December 2015 on stratified random sample of 1000 (700 SM users and 300  non-users) residents of Poland.

Results: 

The research shows that resources embedded in family, friends and acquaintances ties have an impact on the political participation of respondents. The impact of resources appears be either positive or negative depending on the activity selected for analysis. For example, resources that could be only accessed, but not mobilised by respondents have no impact on dependent variable defined as voting in elections. At the same time, resources that could be mobilized have positive impact on voting. When signing petition activity is examined the impact of resources is reversed. There is no effect of mobilizable resources and positive impact of resources that are embedded in individual's personal network. The strong ties (family and friends) are better source of embedded resources that have a positive impact on the political participation of social media users in Poland. In general, weak ties have no or negative effect on activities examined in this research. The only exception is voting in elections. It is found that resources mobilizable through weak ties may have a positive impact on respondents voting activity.

Thus, the amount and quality of social capital embedded in personal networks matter when the political participation is considered. Resources embedded in family, friends and acquaintances circles have an impact on certain activities exemplifying the political participation of social media users in Poland.

Future Work: 

The quantitative data will be combined with the qualitative data obtained via in-depth interviews based on position generator tool.

References:

Batorski, D., Bojanowski, M., & Filipek, K. (2015). Getting a Job: Resources and Individual’s Chances on the Warsaw Labour Market. Polish Sociological Review, 192(4).

Bourdieu, P. (1986). The Forms of Capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of Theory of Research for the Sociology of Education (pp. 46–58). New York: Greenwood Press.

Ellison, N. B., Vitak, J., Gray, R., & Lampe, C. (2014). Cultivating Social Resources on Social Network Sites: Facebook Relationship Maintenance Behaviors and Their Role in Social Capital Processes. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19(4), 855–870. http://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12078

Finsveen, E., & van Oorschot, W. (2008). Access to Resources in Networks: A Theoretical and Empirical Critique of Networks as a Proxy for Social Capital. Acta Sociologica, 51(4), 293–307. http://doi.org/10.1177/0001699308097375

Lin, Nan. 1999. “Building a Network Theory of Social Capital” edited by N. Lin, K. S. Cook, and R. S. Burt. Connections 22(1):28–51.

Lin, Nan. 2001. Social Capital. A Theory of Social Structure and Action. Cambridge University Press.

Lin, Nan, John C. Vaughn, and Walter M. Ensel. 1981. “Social Resources and Occupational Status Attainment *.” Social Forces 59(4):1163–81. Retrieved (social resources, netoworks).

Steinfield, C., Ellison, N. B., & Lampe, C. (2008). Social capital, self-esteem, and use of online social network sites: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29(6), 434–445. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.07.002

Van Der Gaag, M., & Snijders, T. a. B. (2005). The Resource Generator: social capital quantification with concrete items. Social Networks, 27(1), 1–29. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.socnet.2004.10.001

Webber, M., Huxley, P., & Harris, T. (2011). Social capital and the course of depression: Six-month prospective cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 129(1-3), 149–157. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2010.08.005


Wednesday July 13, 2016 13:46 - 15:15
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:15

Coffee Break
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building), Building 2
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Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:15 - 15:30
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - Weston Atrium Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:30

Session 6A: Trust & Credibility
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Moderators
RP

Rob Procter

Warwick University

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:30 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:30

Session 6B: User Engagement & Dynamic
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Moderators
Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:30 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:30

Session 6C: Identity: Culture & Gender
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Moderators
HM

Heather McIntosh

International Development Research Centre

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:30 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:30

Session 6D: Organizations & Workplaces
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Moderators
avatar for Esther Brainin

Esther Brainin

Senior Lecturer, Ruppin Academic Center Israel

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:30 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Applying Warranting Theory to Online Third Party Marketplaces: The Effects of Information Uniqueness and Product Type
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Contributors:
  • W. Scott Sanders, University of Louisville, United States
  • Gopi Chand Nutakki, University of Louisville, United States
  • Olfa Nasraoui, University of Louisville, United States

Online third party marketplaces link buyers and sellers by providing a neutral platform for exchange. However, this requires buyers to assess the quality of an unknown seller’s goods without being able to handle or sample them. Recent research has proposed extending the warranting principle, an emerging theory of online interpersonal impression formation, to the judgements consumer make about products online. The warranting principle holds that information that is more difficult to manufacture or manipulate, such as an individualized photo of an auction item, should be more informative to a consumers judgement of the product than information which is easy to falsify or manipulate. While this theoretical extension assumes that all online goods are capable of being assessed in the same way, some goods (i.e. experience goods) are more difficult to assess in online marketplaces because they must be experienced before their true quality and characteristics can be known. The current study examines 2,401 completed auctions from eBay revealing that the relationship between warranting cues and price discounts is moderated by the type of good being sold. The theoretical contributions and limitations of the study are discussed.

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Corporate power, institutional resistance, and online exchanges
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Contributor: Sylvia Peacock, York University, Toronto, Canada

Background: 

How is consensus found in small groups that negotiate important Internet protocols, just using public email listservers? This project analyses three important threads on a public email listserver that contain the email exchanges of a small group of people who were chartered by the IETF with updating our current HTTP protocol, that underlies all our traffic on the Internet. It was an update that was long overdue, and is still in the wake of being finalized. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is an international Internet standard setting organisation. In general, its mandate is to identify and develop technical standards for the entire Internet, anywhere in the world. It is one of the most unregulated, independent, transnational, and anti-authoritarian Internet governance levels. Given the considerable number of users affected by these standards, vested interests emerge and are vigorously pursued, at times. Only a very small number of studies have shed light on the socio-economic and political role of this organisation, exploring how the IETF works, who benefits from their procedures and publications, and how much deference is paid to corporate interests that claim patents or intellectual property rights.

The selected email threads contain discussions on the required changes to make the next generation HTTP a success. One particularly contested point was how much of the world’s next HTTP should be based on Google’s SPDY (read ‘speedy’), developed by Mike Belshe and Robert Peon while they were employed by Google (both have since left). SPDY was launched by Google in 2009 without IETF standardisation, and included some business enhancing possibilities for their social media platforms (see https://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-mbelshe-httpbis-spdy-00). Their corporate search and social media business model is straightforward. While people are engaged in entering searches or exchanging their views and opinions online automatically all their online entries and machine data are tracked, stored, analysed, bought and sold without public oversight (Hoofnagle & Whittington 2014). Although the possibility for online exchanges is usually viewed positively, online users are divided over the merits of the corporate use of their personal data (PEW 2015, Goodman 2006, Peacock under review).

Additionally, pervasive monitoring (PM) with its continuous analysis of web traffic by governmental agencies was identified as a problem that needed attention in any HTTP update: “Pervasive monitoring is a technical attack that should be mitigated in the design of IETF protocols, where possible” (Farrell & Tschofenig 2014, p. 1). In the wake of this development, the HTTP working group who was chartered with the design of the new HTTP framed PM as relevant to their work. These and other discussions lead to increased their independence from the initial corporate push to merely standardise SPDY.

Objective: 

In international organisations people selectively share important knowledge to strengthen in-group coherence, enhancing social status of some while producing social exclusion of others. The current study offers evidence of the social tension between corporate interests and the public goods character of the Internet. Given the salience of the HTTP/2 charter corporate actors, online agency and user advocacy feature prominently in select online discussions.

The current work is not so much about the merits of our new HTTP/2 but focuses on the way rough consensus in this working group is produced using tools of social media. The extent of rough consensus is at the very heart of this project and the use of social media – in this case, an early form of social media, namely public email listservers – serves as my empirical case study. According to an earlier study by Froomkin (2003) discussion in IETF working groups are an ideal case of an inclusive practical discourse that Habermas seems to have envisioned as a public sphere (Habermas 1989, Froomkin 2003). The questions answered in this study are twofold: When does rough consensus succeed or fail and who are the most central people in this process? Furthermore, in how far do online discussions emulate an inclusive practical discourse, particularly if the politics of engineering Internet standards for the entire world is at the heart of the discourse?

As one of the first institutional bodies of standardising best practise on the Internet, a dated but proven email listserver tool is used to exchange ideas and opinions.  In the current high-stakes case to produce the next generation HTTP, I assess behavioural objectives and social interactions amongst the working group (WG) members who are all volunteers, vis-à-vis dominant corporate agents to analyse how consensus is build or fails to be build. Most email inputs in the archive contain technical specifications or experiments (testing applications in the wild), but the launch of the charter to construct a new HTTP/2 saw deeply social topics covered like the degree of independence of the IETF which shows the political nature of Internet engineering. In the end, what is made possible or inhibited by technology are very often political decisions made by a small number of people which then go on to affect a large number of people, in this case the entire world (if adoption is successful).

Of particular interest are the initial three months when the group’s charter is discussed. Members weigh into the merits of SPDY versus a more secure HTTP, and debate the extent of their options to have more independence. Given the corporate presence of WG members with heavy ties to Google, Mozilla and a number of other large Internet firms and an already existing ‘new’ HTTP (SPDY) members felt heavily nudged towards ‘rubberstamping’ corporate online interests. But other opinion leaders emerged to insist on broadening their assignment. Eventually, this lead to a more consensual move: SPDY was used as a mere backdrop and while the group independently improved the current HTTP. A small number of people dominated the discourse resulting in the outcome we have today – an improved HTTP with backward compatibility and better options to circumvent PM. According to Haberman, this can be viewed as an outcome of delegation when important decisions are delegated to people who are considered more capable than others. As might be expected, a considerable number of emails focused on the very nature of the WG’s assignment and the envisioned end product, given the urgent need for more thorough HTTP updates. Humour, allcaps, hilarity, and rhetoric are used as members engage in highly contentious exchanges, which is usually a good indication of the political nature of their work. Taken together, a theoretical framework of the public sphere seems appropriate to advance my analysis of the empirical data produced by this working group.

Methods: 

My research includes the representation of knowledge, rules, clout, and classifications in the publicly accessible email contributions from working group members (WG). These public contributions are of a very peculiarly nature, because public access to the email list is obscure while at the same time, full public access is granted, if anyone finds them. Currently, I am finishing the analysis of emailed contributions from members of the HTTP/2 WG on the contentious discussions about the extent of their charter and questions surrounding the inclusion of Google’s SPDY for the new HTTP/2. To wit, SPDY had been in use since 2009, and the number of company heads who were adopting it without IETF standardisation was increasing (e.g., Amazon in September 2009 or Netty in February 2012). Discussions on how to recharter the HTTP/2 working group started in January 2012. The first http proposal was officially launched in February 2012 (based fully on SPDY). In the next two months at three different discussion threads ensued containing lively debates on the question how much of our next generation HTTP should be based on Google’s SPDY.

The choice of this case study is based on its importance for the online public sphere, particularly regarding user agency and the fact that social media were used to negotiate technical choices. Contentious issues are identified by the comments of group members and in published articles outside the WG that describe this particular piece of engineered standard setting (e.g., Kristol 2001, Kamp 2015). The full list of email discussions on the HTTP/2 standard is hosted by the IETF HTTP WG (see http://httpwg.github.io/). Additionally, an IETF meeting took place in Paris in March 2012 (IETF 83) that offers some insights of how the discussion of the charter continued face-to-face. All of these materials are publicly accessible, although members expect little public scrutiny beyond those immediately contributing and involved in the discussions. Therefore the archives are characterised as quasi-public in my current work.

The context and social interactions of the working g…


Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

The Retransmission of Rumor-related Tweets: Characteristics of Source and Message
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Contributors:
  • Alton Chua, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
  • Cheng-Ying Tee, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
  • Augustine Pang, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
  • Ee-Peng Lim, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

This paper investigates the characteristics of rumor-related tweets that would attract their retransmission on Twitter. Drawing on the uses and gratifications (U & G) and influential users’ theories, it proposes a rumor retransmission model which comprises variables associated to the source and the message of the tweets. From a total of 5885 rumor-related tweets about the death of the founding Prime Minister of Singapore Lee Kuan Yew collected, 800 original tweets without a “RT” prefix were selected for analysis. It was found that the experience and connectivity of the source are correlated to retransmission. The age of the account and number of followers have positive relationships with retransmission, while the number of tweets posted and number of friends have negative relationships. For characteristics of the message, attractiveness and expressions of sense of belonging are positively related to retransmission. In contrast, the use of directed messages and medium-specific features, namely hashtags and URLs have negative relationships with retransmission. Moreover, compared to messages without emotional expressions, messages with low level of emotions would trigger more retweets, but highly emotional messages would result in less retweets. Results suggest that in inauspicious contexts such as the rumored death of a political figure, Twitter users appear to favor less complex content and seem to be discerning and rational in making retransmission decisions.

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Which Post Will Impress the Most? Impression Formation Based on Visual and Textual Cues in Facebook Profiles
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Contributors:
  • Ayellet Pelled, University of Wisconsin, United States
  • Tanya Zilberstein, Bar-Ilan University, Israel
  • Alona Tsironlikov, University of Haifa, Israel
  • Eran Pick, University of Haifa, Israel
  • Yael Parkin, University of Haifa, Israel
  • Nurit Tal-Or, University of Haifa, Israel

The existing research presents ambivalent evidence regarding the significance of visual cues, as opposed to textual cues, in the process of impression formation. While textual information might have a stronger effect due to its solid and unambiguous character, visual information may have a stronger effect due to its vividness and immediate absorption. This debate is particularly relevant in the context of online social networks, as they are constituted on the sharing of textual and visual elements between their users. 

We conducted two consecutive studies to test our main research question: Which elements of one’s Facebook profile have a more significant influence on impression formation- pictures or texts? The first study found that when presented outside the context of Facebook, textual cues were more dominant in the process of impression formation. The second study, which tested impression formation via Facebook, further corroborated this result, suggesting that the textual cues are also dominant in the context of online profiles. Moreover, these effects were influenced by individual characteristics of the participants, such as Need for Cognition, in a manner that individuals with a high need for cognition placed more emphasis on textual cues. Furthermore, other elements that construct the online profile, such as amount of 'likes', also effected the impression formed, especially if the profile owner was perceived as manipulative.  

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG02 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Comparing Social Media Engagement Between Two Technology Disciplines
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Contributors:
  • Brian Regan, University of Newcastle, Australia
  • Luke Regan, Raigmore Hospital, NHS Highlands, United Kingdom
  • Peter Summons, University of Newcastle, Australia

Background: 

This study was prompted by discussion among the authors about activity in the discipline of Emergency Medicine(EM), whereby practitioners and academic researchers were actively using social media to communicate with each other and in particular for transmitting information about the latest practices in patient treatment - highlighted by an active online community (FOAMeD)  (Life in the Fast Lane, n.d.) and an annual conference (SMACC) – Social Media and Critical Care. These processes provide a dynamic and cost-free platform for communicating between academia and clinical practice (Scott, et al., 2014), for which serious benchmarking has been recommended by EM practitioners  (Weingart & Faust, 2014). By contrast the multitude of conferences in the Information Technology/ Computer Science (IT/CS) space have had a tendency to polarize discussion into either academic or industry streams, with less social media engagement. This project is to explore the SM engagement between two technology focused disciplines.

Objective: 

To identify how different the social media engagement is between EM & IT/CS, and to analyse the reasons for such differences.

Methods: 

The public websites of all Australian publicly funded universities were examined to locate the names of professorial staff in IT or Computer Science schools, and academic staff in Emergency Medicine disciplines in Medical schools. The latter were harder to locate as not all medical school websites listed staff in discipline groups, resulting in 3 times the number of identified IT vs EM staff examined. But in both discipline areas any names found were then used to explore for a Twitter account. The names were then used to search for accounts on twitter and where the biographical data did not indicate a direct match – the people being followed and the pubic tweets were examined to try to confirm a link to indicate a match to the institution or relevant discipline topics. It is possible that some of the examined identities were using a false identity on Twitter but it was assumed that total anonymity did not indicate an engagement with Twitter as part of the subject’s professional activity. Whilst the existence of related Facebook accounts was examined for IT/CS staff, the privacy settings and closed nature of Facebook make it less accessible for study. Twitter was also considered more generally the platform for open professional discussions.

Results: 

Table 1. Comparison of Twitter Activity

In addition to examining Twitter involvement, for the IT/CS cohort, they were searched for on Facebook and 41 (or 22%) were found with public accounts.

The median results were included as the means in each case were raised in both disciplines by a small number of very active individuals.

Future Work: 

The initial results above reinforced the impression that IT/CS academics whilst supposedly heavily engaged with technology have shown a reluctance as a discipline to engage with social media driven by the platforms for which they are experts. During the examination of the Tweets of the accounts it was noted that there seemed a trend in the IT/CS tweets to be more public notices then a real engagement or discussion that was shown in the EM activity. The next step is to survey academics in the two disciplines to identify the details of their use of SM and to use frameworks such as in  (Ngai, Tao, & Moon, 2014) to analyse the respective engagement. This could also include more systematic analysis of the content of the Tweets.

References:

(n.d.). Retrieved January 12/1/2016, 2016, from Life in the Fast Lane: http://lifeinthefastlane.com/foam/

Ngai, E., Tao, S., & Moon, K. (2014, October 19). Social media research: Theories, constructs, and conceptual frameworks. International Journal of Information Management, 35, 33-44.

Scott, K., Hsu, C., Johnson, N., Mamtani, M., Conion, L., & DeRoos, F. (2014, October). Integration of Social Media in Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 64(4), 396-404.

Weingart, S., & Faust, J. (2014). Future evolution of traditional journals and social media medical education . Emergency Medicine Australia, 26, 62-66.


Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Is Negative Word-of-Mouth Contagious? Exploring Negative Word-of-Mouth Dynamics in Social Media Networks.
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Contributors:
  • Ting Yu, College of Economic Management, Nanchang University, China; Department of Information Management,Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan
  • Ying-Jia Huang, Department of Information Management, Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan
  • Joyce Lee, Department of Information Management, Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan
  • Chien-Lung Chan, Department of Information Management, Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan
  • K.Robert Lai, Department of Information Management, Innovation Center for Big Data and Digital Convergence, Yuan Ze University, Taiwan

Background: The power of social media is a double-edged sword. It, on the one hand, creates a possible contagious effect regarding electronic word-of-mouth (WOM) which can be easily spread and become well-known. On the other hand, individuals and organizations might be facing serious impacts caused by negative WOM (NWOM) and their reputations might become harmed as a consequence. Prior research has highlighted that NWOM can spread faster, has greater impact and is more influential than positive WOM (PWOM). It can lead to “negative bias” (e.g. Hornik, 2015) and explosive complaint behavior, termed an “online firestorm” (Pfeffer, Zorbach and Carley, 2014). 

Objective: Researchers from multiple disciplines have highlighted that it is important to make sense of and respond to NWOM so as to reduce potentially calamitous NWOM impacts. However, the following questions remain: can explosive NWOM become mild and the dissemination of NWOM slow down? If this is possible, what is the nature of the diffusion process of NWOM in which the negativity of contagion does not occur or is reduced? To study the phenomenon of NWOM-reduction, we adopt our theoretical lens from dynamic social impact theory (Nowak, 1990). This is used to study social influences by using a dynamic systems approach to explain the motives, emotions and behaviors that emerge among individuals trying to influence each other. From this theoretical perspective, we aim to gain better understandings of the dynamic context of NWOM and consequently, offer suggestions regarding how to reclaim a level of control for companies facing crises due to NWOM. 

Methods: This study focuses on the business domain. A major motivation for business organizations investing in NWOM-reduction is its potentiality calamitous impact on revenue (Williams and Buttle, 2014). In order to address the research aim, we conduct social network analysis using a qualitative approach (Hollstein, 2011) based on data collected from a very popular online discussion forum in Taiwan. Two discussion topics of interest are considered as cases of NWOM-reduction. One is entitled “Is the Toyota a safe car?” which generated 15,716 views and 766 replies. The other is “The Apple products are getting worse after the death of Jobs, aren’t they?” containing 71,877 views and 189 replies. 

Results: Although the headings for these two discussion topics appeared neutral, they quickly attracted many people complaining the products provided by the aforementioned brands and voicing similar gripes. The negative emotions were soon intensified. While the complaining messages were passed back and forth, we observed that a changing moment occurred: NWOM became mild and at the same time PWOM turned to be very powerful. By conducting social networking analysis, we noted that the degree of closeness amongst people who supported the negative opinions was reduced while that among the strong defenders of the products increased. The outcomes demonstrate a power game between the zealots and the others in that the “zealots’ effect” and “people on the sidelines” made a significant contribution to NWOM contagion-reduction. We offer these results as a new contribution to studies in this field. 

Future Work: This study continues to investigate NWOM-reduction with more case studies. With the development of fruitful research, we hope to share further discoveries within the conference.  

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Modeling misclassifications in multilayer networks
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
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Contributor: Devin Gaffney, Northeastern, United States

Background: 

Haythornthwaite and Wellman’s seminal work establishing the importance of multiplexity in social contacts across various communication media established from an early point that accounting for the various networks individuals interact upon is of primary importance. This work addresses a methodological concern with studies on multiplexity - specifically, this work imagines trials of synthetic multilayer networks where ties made across layers are potentially incorrect in several ways. The work then examines the effect of these incorrect ties in terms of how analyzing the diffusion of a rumor may differ from cases where all ties are correctly assigned.


Objective: 

This paper aims to contribute to methodological practices around measuring multilayer networks in emergent situations, such as a breaking news event of an online activist campaign. The issue at hand is largely concerned with failures to correctly identify cross ties between network layers, and how various failures result in different outcomes than an identical counter-factual case where those failures are not present.


Methods: 

The work employs a network modeling approach combined with a rumor diffusion model. The paper establishes several parameters of interest that approximate different types of failures in generating ties between two networks, and then modulates those parameters randomly over many stochastic realizations of the model, while always having two control cases with the same parameters for each realization to allow for a comparison between what is different in a case where failures occur. From this, a comparison one zero failure (where ties across networks are perfectly set) case against the other zero failure case and one zero failure case and the failure case (where ties across networks are imperfectly set) allows for a close examination of the impact of these failures on being able to correctly measure outcomes from the network.


Results: 

The results indicate that only certain types of errors actually damage downstream analysis of emergent events in multilayer networks. Specifically, as long as the approximate number of cross ties is close to the correct amount, even if those ties are misclassified, the results will mostly allow for a close analysis that is correct in its findings. If, however, many ties fail in the sense that those links between the networks are never drawn, the results will deviate from the control case.


Future Work: 

Future work will consider further complications arising in multilayer network situations, such as differing parameters for rumor spreading (i.e. a condition where one network spreads the rumor differently than the other) while also removing the complexity of the current work for parameters that seem to have little to no effect on differing outcomes. 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Public library SM hyperlinks: objects or object relations
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Mary Cavanagh, University of Ottawa, Canada
  • Marie-Claude Gagnon, University of Ottawa, Canada
  • Joel Rivard, University of Ottawa, Canada

Background: 

The hyperlink has been a central organizing feature and information structure of the Internet and therefore of our "hyperlinked" information society (Turow & Tsui, 2008). Hyperlinks are simultaneously information and communication structures, and material objects that render acts of media creation visible and available for distribution or circulation. By design, hyperlinks have a social purpose (Adamic, 2008); they are "not only ubiquitous; they are the basic forces that relate creative works to one another for fun, fame, or fortune" (Turow & Tsui, 2008, 4). However, recent practices suggest that the importance of the hyperlink is diminishing as SM platforms shift from their primary purpose as social networks connecting indivduals across the internet and their communities, to design as a series of single, self-contained content channels for their audiences and/or followers. 

Objective: 

Recently activist pioneering political blogger, Derakhshan, contrasted the original value attributed to links in his earliest blogging days with today's use of links, and despaired: "But links are not objects, they are relations between objects. This objectivisation has stripped hyperlinks of their immense powers" (Derakhshan, 2015). 
Specifically among public libraries have hyperlinks become only habitual objects for marketing and consumption? Or are there more compelling current arguments for embedding hyperlinks in their social media interactions? 

Taking a practice-based approach to Twitter, this paper suggests that the link remains a valuable digital information structure, agency and material mediator in the public learning commons that is the Internet. Although a tweet-based hyperlink can simply be 'consumed' as an information object, it can also participate in the larger social construction of information relationships and knowledge and learning communities. "It is the context of practice that makes something information" (Cornelius, 2014; Kallinikos, Ekbia and Nardi, 2015). 

Methods: 

This work is part of a larger study; it brings together macro and micro-level research methods from three data sources. The primary dataset consists of 85,000 tweets, RTs and follower MTs with embedded hyperlinks from Canadian public library twitter accounts (185) over a 6-month period in 2014, parsed into their primary domains. Domains mentioned more than once (61%) were classified thematically and re-inserted into the dataset for descriptive statistical analysis. Social media interviews (10) and participant observations from two of these urban libraries explored how and why staff construct their social media identities at the policy and interaction levels. Finally, online surveys of library users from these communities report on their attitudes to the library's use of social media and their personal habits. 

Results: 

Findings are organized into three themes that address both the transactional and aggregated value of public library hyperlinks embedded in micro-blogging interactions: a) perceptions of the informational and knowledge authority and trust of the public library; b) the agency of the hyperlink as a news and popular culture purveyor and mediator; c) library networks of community engagement co-constructed and sustained through the material sharing of Twitter-embedded hyperlinks. 

Future Work:

This paper complements other themes still to be published in this larger study of Canadian public libraries and their SM practices. 

References:

Adamic, Lada (2008). The social hyperlink, in J. Turow & L. Tsui, (eds.) The hyperlinked society: Questioning connections in the digital age. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 227- 249.
Cornelieus, Ian (2014). Epistemological challenges for information science: constructing information, in F. Ibekwe-SanJuan and T.M. Dousa (eds.) Theories of information, communication and knowledge: Studies in history and philosophy of science 34, Springer Science-Business Media B.V.
Derakhshan, H. (2015) Iran's blogfather: Facebook, instagram, and twitter are killing the web. The Guardian, Tuesday, 29 December. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2015/dec/29/irans-blogfather-facebook-instagram-and-twitter-are-killing-the-web  
Kallinikos, J. Ekbia, H, & Nardi, B. (2015). Regimes of information and the paradox of embeddedness: an introduction. Special issue – The Information Society, 31, 101-105.
Turow, J., & Tsui, Lokman. (2008). The hyperlinked society: Questioning connections in the digital age. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - LG01 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Athlete Self-Presentation on Social Media: The impact of gender and cultural norms
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Ashleigh-Jane Thompson, Massey University, New Zealand
  • Ann Pegoraro, Laurentian University, Canada

Background: 

Reflecting the growth of social media (SM), and the widespread adoption in the sports industry, scholarly inquiry has explored their use in a range of contexts. Recently, research has drawn on Goffman’s (1959) theory to explore athletes’ use of SM as a site for self-presentation, examining the nature of content posted to specific social platforms (e.g., Lebel & Danylchuk, 2012), as well as visual imagery (e.g., Geurin-Eagleman & Burch, 2015). Findings from these studies show that athletes’ use of SM appears to align with the existence of gender stereotypes of athletes in media. 

Such gender stereotypes are considered reflective of deeper sociological beliefs about sport suitability and gender in society (Pfister, 2010). Several studies have considered perceptions of sport appropriateness based on gender, categorising sports as male appropriate (e.g., basketball, soccer, weightlifting), female appropriate (e.g., ballet and figure skating) and neutral (e.g., swimming and tennis) (Koivula, 2001; Matteo, 1986). Geert Hofstede has studied national culture norms over several decades identifying four main dimensions of national culture: Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism versus Collectivism, and Masculinity versus Femininity (Hofstede, Hofstede & Minkov, 2010). For the purpose of this study, the last dimension: masculinity versus femininity will be utilized. Hofstede’s multi-year study of 76 nations indicates that masculinity is high in Japan, in some European countries (e.g. Germany, Austria and Switzerland), and moderately high in Anglo countries (e.g. Canada). Conversely, masculinity is low in Nordic countries (e.g. Sweden) and in the Netherlands and moderately low in some Latin (e.g. Portugal) and Asian countries (e.g. Thailand) (Hofstede et al., 2010). While research has considered media portrayals of athletes based on gendered sport categorisations, to date, no known research has explored this in relation to athlete self-presentation and conformity to cultural norms. 

Objective: 

The purpose of this research is to explore whether there is a difference in an athletes’ self-portrayal on Instagram based on the gender-appropriateness (Matteo, 1986) of the sport they participate in and the degree of masculinity found in their respective home countries as measured by Hofstede’s (2013) Values Survey Module (VSM). 

Methods:

A purposive sample of female and male athletes will be utilised in this study, based upon the following selection criteria. Firstly, using Hofstede’s national culture study, five countries (Netherlands, Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Japan) have been selected based on their ranking on the Masculinity dimension (from 0-100). Secondly, six sports (Rugby, Tennis, Gymnastics, Field Hockey, Volleyball and Weightlifting) were selected due to their gender-appropriate categorisation. The last step involves selecting top athletes meeting these criteria to arrive at a purposeful sample for the study. A content analytic method will then be employed to analyse their photographs, and the visual self-presentation of these athletes. 

Results: 

Once all photos are collected and coded, descriptive statistics, frequencies, and cross-tabulations will be used to analyse the data. The findings from this study will provide insight into the impact of gender and cultural norms on athlete self-presentation strategies on SM. Analysis will be completed by the 2016 Social Media and Society Conference and the full findings will be presented, along with theoretical and practical implications. 

References: 

Geurin-Eagleman, A. & Burch, L. (2015). Communicating via photographs: A gendered analysis of Olympic athletes’ visual self-presentation on Instagram. Sport Management Research. 
Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Anchor Books. 
Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G.J. and Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. McGraw-Hill: New York. 
Koivula, N. (2001). Perceived characteristics of sports categorized as gender-neutral, feminine and masculine. Journal of Sport Behavior, 24, 377-393.  
Lebel, K., & Danylchuk, K. (2012). How tweet it is: A gendered analysis of professional tennis players’ self-presentation on Twitter. International Journal of Sport Communication, 5, 461–480. 
Matteo, S. (1986). The effect of sex and gender-schematic processing on sport participation. Sex Roles, 15, 417-432.
Pfister, G. (2010). Women in sport – Gender relations and future perspectives. Sport in Society, 13, 234-248.  

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Is the gender gap in science mirrored in altmetrics?
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Stefanie Haustein, University of Montreal, Canada
  • Adèle Paul-Hus, University of Montreal, Canada
  • Cassidy Sugimoto, Indiana University Bloomington, United States
  • Vincent Larivière, EBSI-UdeM, Canada

Background: 

The gender gap in science has been subject of many recent discussions and analyses. Female authors have been shown to be less productive and have less impact as reflected in the number of papers and citations (Larivière, Ni, Gingras, Cronin, & Sugimoto, 2013). However, the landscape of research dissemination and impact is changing, with the adoption of social media by scholars and the use of “altmetrics” in research evaluation. It therefore begs the question on the extent to which this new environment replicates the gender disparities observed in the old (Paul-Hus, Sugimoto, Haustein, & Larivière, 2015). Internet technologies are promoted for their ability to democratize and flatten traditional hierarchies and women indeed show a slightly higher level of participation on social networking sites (Perrin, 2015). This suggests that measures of visibility based on social media may achieve greater gender parity than citation-based impact measures.

Objective: 

Based on the social media activity of 769,695 journal articles covered by the Web of Science (WoS), this study aims to compare the amount of attention papers first-authored by male and female researchers receive via Mendeley, Facebook, Twitter, blogs and Wikipedia and to analyze any potential differences by platform and discipline.

Methods: 

Gender was determined for the first authors of 769,695 articles and reviews published in 2013 in journals covered by WoS using the method developed by Larivière et al. (2013). For each of these papers, the number of unique Twitter users, public Facebook posts, blog posts, and Wikipedia entries were obtained from Altmetric.com and the number of readership counts retrieved via the Mendeley API using DOIs. Social media events were matched to the bibliographic and citation information from WoS and analyzed by gender and discipline. Results were compared using density, coverage, and 99th percentiles of particular events (Haustein, Costas, & Larivière, 2015). Stability intervals based on 95% confidence intervals of bootstraps (1,000 replications with replacement) were computed for each indicator to test the significance of gender differences.


Results: 

The number of papers led by female (n=269,054) compared to male first authors (n=500,641) replicates the well-established gender gap. Scientific impact reflects the same pattern, as relative citation rates of papers with male exceed those of papers with female first authors in all disciplines. The results for social media visibility differ by social media platform, discipline, and indicator. Based on coverage–i.e., the percentage of papers with at least one social media event—most differences between female and male papers are small and not significant (Figure 1). Among significant results, male papers are more likely to be cited on Wikipedia or blogs, while Mendeley tends to show higher coverage for papers first-authored by women. Twitter and Facebook coverage varies according to discipline.

Future Work: 

As social media events per paper are extremely skewed and results differed between coverage, density, and 99th percentile, future work involves a more detailed analysis of the particular distributions using percentile ranks.

 

References:

Haustein, S., Costas, R., & Larivière, V. (2015). Characterizing social media metrics of scholarly papers: The effect of document properties and collaboration patterns. PLoS ONE, 10(3), e0120495. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0120495

Larivière, V., Ni, C. C., Gingras, Y., Cronin, B., & Sugimoto, C. R. (2013). Global gender disparities in science. Nature, 504(7479), 211–213.

Paul-Hus, A., Sugimoto, C. R., Haustein, S., & Larivière, V. (2015). Is there a gender gap in social media metrics? (pp. 37–45). Presented at the 15th International Conference on Scientometrics and Informetrics, Istanbul, Turkey. Retrieved from http://www.issi2015.org/files/downloads/all-papers/0037.pdf

Perrin, A. (2015). Social Networking Usage: 2005-2015. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2015/10/08/2015/Social-Networking-Usage-2005-2015/



Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

“Relationships form so quickly that you won’t cherish them”: Mobile Dating Apps and the Culture of Instantaneous Relationships
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Tsz Hin Fung, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
  • Tien Ee Dominic Yeo, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong

Mobile dating apps with geolocative function have gained popularity for fostering social, romantic and sexual connections between proximate strangers. Existing research, however, has neglected the significance of time in the experience of app use. Through the lens of social time, this paper sheds light on users’ experience on two popular gay mobile dating apps, namely Grindr and Jack’d. Based on in-depth interviews and focus-group discussions with 74 young gay men in Hong Kong, this paper identifies that the tempo and sequence produced by the specific affordances of apps shapes users’ experience. Specifically, accelerated tempo of interactions facilitated by constant connectivity, ubiquitous computing, geolocative function, and the apps’ messaging system was seen to entail instantaneous and ephemeral relationships. The interface design foregrounding profile photos and backgrounding textual self-descriptions structures the sequence of browsing and screening in a way that prioritizes physical appearance. Such a design was perceived to privilege users seeking casual hook-ups. These findings suggest that the temporality of browsing and exchange on apps is incongruous with the temporal norms prescribing formation of friendship and long-term romance. The violation of these normative expectations affects the perceived quality and satisfaction of app use, resulting in users’ frustrations. 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 314 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

A review of research on social media use in organizations
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Halvdan Haugsbakken, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway

Background: 

Media scholars have systematically examined the implications of social media on society. The ways the same technology adopt into organizations is a more uncertain area of knowledge in organization studies. This aspect relates to that organization theorists prefer to engage into theorizing, than putting focus on how social media is actually used among people in organizational life. This leads to an emphasis on explaining what social media “is”, than painting a larger picture on how receptive organizations are to adopt the forces of digitalization.

Objective: 

Hence, the paper provides a research review of a large sample of empirical studies, which have examined how members in organizations use three social media services – blog, Social Network Sites and wikis. Based on an open coding strategy, the research review tries to establish common user patterns for use of social media in organizational life.

Methods: 

To complete the research review, an open-ended literature research search was performed in bibliographic databases by use of search strings. The search and data analysis period lasted from January to May 2015 and yielded a final data sample of 105 research articles, covering scientific journals and conference papers evaluated to answer the paper’s problem complex.

Results: 

The research review finds some overall user patterns for use of social media in organizations. Social media services are foremost used as a connecting site and knowledge repository. Here, wikis suggest to work as a successful knowledge repository. Employees use social media services to search and retrieve resources and communicate with people across internal organizational boundaries. For example, blogs and SNSs can enhance internal communication in organizations. But many studies also show barriers to adoption; blog and SNSs are often sustained by a core group and sharing is seen as challenging to perform in practice. SNSs are however seen as a platform that can cultivate social capital across organizational levels. To communicate externally, SNSs are typically used as a bulletin board, while employees are conscious on how they bond with peers internally in organizations. Wikis are often used as a collaborative tool and can be a suitable platform to support work processes, meaning that users are aware on their role performance.

In sum, the research review suggests that organizations attempt to ascertain basic knowledge on initial user patterns. Few studies report changes in organizational structures. Thus, social media has challenges in becoming sustainable. Rather, adopting social media in organizational life is an “uphill struggle” for those seeing it as beneficial. For many employees, social media represents another ICT that has to be learned. Therefore, one finds the common user pattern that a core group of users adopt the technology and maintain network activities, while a larger user group remain and use “older” ICTs. They remain in the email sphere and passively monitor the online content the core group shares.

Future Work: 

The research review will give suggestions for areas of future research and how practitioners and managers can use social media as part of their work practices. 


Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Crowdsourcing in Practice: the users view of micro tasking
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributors:
  • Anita Greenhill, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
  • Jamie Woodcock, Cass Business School, United Kingdom
  • Kate Holmes, University of Manchester, United Kingdom
  • Chris Lintott, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Brooke Simmons, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Gary Graham, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
  • Karen Masters, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom
  • Joe Cox, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom
  • Eun Young Oh, University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom

Background:

This paper explores the relationship between paid labour and users within the Zooniverse, a crowdsourced citizen science platform. The infrastructure that allows very large numbers of users to participate simultaneously in the Zooniverse is run on Amazon Web Services cloud servers. This connection between Amazon and the Zooniverse can be explored to illustrate a number of important features in this form of crowdsourcing. For example, Amazon Mechanical Turk is run on this service. This involves splitting larger tasks into small fragments and then outsourcing them to a pool of digital workers. The way in which the labour input becomes hidden on these kinds of platforms has been described by Trebor Scholz (2015) as ‘digital black box labor.’ It obfuscates a number of issues: how is the labour process organised and who is doing it? How is it managed and controlled? What is it being used for? And, particularly important for this paper, what tensions are present both inside and beyond the platform? 

Objective:

To gain deeper insight into the user activities involved in the collective categorisation of large datasets, mainly relating to images that cannot currently be analysed algorithmically. However, unlike in other examples of micro-tasking, in this case there is also the possibility for individual users to make serendipitous discoveries. Furthermore, this work aims to explore the contradictions that emerge in practice between the two, especially considering the tensions between paid and unpaid labour. 

Methods:

The paper draws on empirical data from an ongoing research project that has access to both users and paid professionals on the platform. This combination of ethnography, in-depth interviews, and quantitative data combines to provide new insights into the organisation and processes of this large citizen science platform. The Zooniverse case study provides an important starting point for understanding the dynamics of paid and unpaid work in the context of crowdsourcing and peer production. 

Results:

There is the potential through growing peer-to-peer capacity that the boundaries between professional and citizen scientists can become significantly blurred. Crowdsourcing can allow the complex tasks involved in data analysis to be collectively achieved, yet there remain limits to the contribution that individuals in the crowd can make. The findings of the paper therefore address important questions about the production of value, ownerships, and the politics of open source acts. These are considered specifically from the viewpoint of the users and therefore form a new contribution to the theoretical understanding of crowdsourcing in practice. 

Future Work:

To continue exploration on the motivation of users on crowdsourcing platforms to disentangle the key motivations such as in this case: a combination of scientific engagement and hedonistic enjoyment. We understand that while the motivation of users does not change the basic interaction on the platform (whatever the reason for participating the data is still being categorised), the former raises a number of important questions about the nature of citizen science. 

References:

Scholz, T. (2015, April 5) Think Outside the Boss. Public Seminar. Retrieved from http://www.publicseminar.org/2015/04/think-outside-the-boss 

 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Healthcare Workers Sharing Knowledge Online: Motivations and Consequences of Participating in a Virtual Community of Practice
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Anika Batenburg, Radboud University Nijmegen, Netherlands

Background:

Within organizations, a recent trend is to use social media platforms for internal communication. These online platforms to share information, so called Virtual Communities of Practice (VCoP’s), enable an open communication climate (Behrend & Erwee, 2009), and therefore are assumed to be more effective as an organizational form to create knowledge and innovation than the traditional hierarchal ways of structuring interactions (Von Wartburg, Rost, & Teichert, 2006). Perhaps because viability and the value of a VCoP depend on member-generated content, previous studies are mostly focused on factors that motivate online knowledge sharing behaviour (e.g., Chiu, Hsu, & Wang, 2006; Chen & Hung, 2010; Cheung, Lee & Lee, 2013). However, it is unknown what participation does to its’ members. 

Objective:

Based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985), we aim to get more insight into intrinsic motivations and potential work-related consequences of knowledge sharing behaviour within a VCoP among employees of a healthcare organization. According SDT, individuals are eager to fulfil three psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness), and when satisfied individuals experience psychological growth, integrity, and wellbeing. The first aim was to test if employees who experience competence, relatedness, and autonomy within the VCoP, are more motivated to share their knowledge within the community. The second goal, as potential consequences of participation, was to test if online knowledge sharing behaviour is related to feelings of competence, autonomy, and relatedness at work, and if this relates to work satisfaction. 

Methods:

A group of 260 employees with access to a VCoP within a Dutch healthcare organization filled-out a questionnaire. First, we measured employees’ online knowledge sharing behaviour (KSB; Yoon & Rolland, 2012), feelings of autonomy, relatedness and competence within the community itself (as motivations for KSB; Yoon & Rolland, 2012), and as consequences, feelings of autonomy, relatedness and competence in performing their job (Deci & Ryan, 2001), and work satisfaction (Curry, Wakefield, Price, & Mueller, 1986). All indices appeared internally consistent (Cronbach’s α >.76) and factor analyses showed that the indices explained between 58.97% and 86.89% of the variance. 

Results:

Regarding motivations, feelings of competence within the community were positively related to online KSB (β =.61, p<.001). Feelings of autonomy and relatedness within the online community were not related to online KSB. With respect to consequences of participation, online KSB was positively related to feelings of autonomy (β =.34, p<.001), relatedness (β =.31, p<.001), and competence at work (β =.38, p<.001). Furthermore, feelings of competence at work was positively related to work satisfaction (β =.29, p=.018). The relationship between online KSB and work satisfaction was partially mediated by feelings of competence at work. 

Future Work:

To our knowledge this is the first study showing that SDT has the potential to explain both motivations and consequences of being part of a VCoP within an organization. A limitation is the cross-sectional design. Future research is needed to establish causal relationships. To reveal if results hold among different communities, we will be present results of two other studies (in progress) as well. 

References: 

Behrend, F. D., & Erwee, R. (2009). Mapping knowledge flows in virtual teams with SNA. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13, 99-114. 
Chen, C.J., & Hung, S.W. (2010). To give or to receive? Factors influencing members’ knowledge sharing and community promotion in professional virtual communities. Information & Management, 47(4), 226–236. 
Cheung, C. M. K., Lee, M. K. O., & Lee, Z. W. Y. (2013). Understanding the continuance intention of knowledge sharing in online communities of practice through the post-knowledge-sharing evaluation processes, 64(7), 1357–1374. 
Chiu, C., Hsu, M., & Wang, E., 2006. Understanding knowledge sharing in virtual communities: an integration of social capital and social cognitive theories. Decision Support Systems, 42 (3), 1872–1888. 
Deci, E.L. and Ryan, R.M., 1985. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press. 
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2001). Questionnaires: Basic Psychological Needs Scales. 
Gagné, M. & Deci, E.L. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Organizational Behavior, 26, 331-362. 
Von Wartburg, I., Rost, K., & Teichert, T. (2006). The creation of social and intellectual capital in virtual communities of practice: shaping social structure in virtual communities of practice. International Journal of Learning and Change, 1(3), 299-316. 

Yoon, C., & Rolland, E. (2012). Knowledge-sharing in virtual communities: familiarity, anonymity and self-determination theory. Behaviour & Information Technology, 31(11), 1–11.  

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

15:31

Local Villages In A Globally Connected Structure – a Case Study of Social Enterprise Media in the Multinational Workplace
Location: PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326, 
Goldsmiths, University of London, Building 2
Campus Map 

Contributor: Lene Pettersen, Westerdals Oslo School of Arts, Communication and Technology, Norway

The study presented in this paper is the first to explore the relationship between knowledge professionals’ offline interaction practices with their interaction practices in their social enterprise media platform in their multinational workplace. The article points to findings from a comprehensive, mixed methods and longitudinal (2010 – 2013) case study of a knowledge intensive multinational organization with entities in over 20 countries in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. The findings point to a consistent pattern that offline practices are expanded online, and that the company’s social enterprise media has facilitated few new acquaintances for employees. This brings important insights to the field of social media and our society because enterprise media are today typically introduced in organizations to establish connections or relationships among employees that do not already know each other or that work at the same geographical place. The study shows that organizations’ online enterprise media spaces cannot be understood without reference to the social context in which they occur. This is explained in the framework of Giddens’s’ structuration theory and his later work on modernity that surprisingly few scholars have employed. 

Wednesday July 13, 2016 15:31 - 17:00
PSH (Professor Stuart Hall Building) - 326 Goldsmiths University, Building 2

17:00

Wrap-Up/Social (self-organized)
Wednesday July 13, 2016 17:00 - 19:00
TBA